Re-evaluation of the conceptualisation of super levees by focusing on the availability of open space as an evacuation area along the Arakawa River

Nurul Ashikin Mabahwi, Hitoshi Nakamura


The objective of this study is to re-evaluate the conceptualization of super levees by focussing on the availability of open spaces as evacuation areas along the Arakawa River. By using land use analysis, occupation analysis and cross-section, the study found that development of super levee is undeniably able to provide sizeable safe upland evacuation area for nearby residents regardless with open space or not because of its ability to be ‘unbreachable’ and anti ‘overtopped’. This study also implies that future development of super levee should include more open space by the development of a public park on the site.

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


levee; flood; overflow; evacuation

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