Re-evaluation of the conceptualisation of super levees by focusing on the availability of open space as an evacuation area along the Arakawa River

Nurul Ashikin Binti Mabahwi, Hitoshi Nakamura


The objective of this study is to re-evaluate the conceptualisation of super levees by focussing on the availability of open spaces as evacuation areas along the Arakawa River. By using land use analysis, occupation analysis and cross-section, this study found that open spaces on super levees able to accommodate a large number of evacuees. This proves that the development of super levees is undeniably ready to provide sizeable safe upland evacuation area for nearby residents. This study also implies that the future development of super levee should include more open space by the development of a public park on the site.

Keywords: super levee; open space; flood; evacuation

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


super levee; open space; flood; evacuation

Full Text:




Allan, P., & Bryant. (2010). The critical role of open space in earthquake recovery: a case study. EN: Proceedings of the 2010 NZSEE Conference, 1-10.

Arakawa-Karyu River Office. (2007). Super levee guidebook. Tokyo, Japan: Author.

Arakawa-Karyu River Office. (2017a). Briefing material - super levees. Tokyo, Japan: Author.

Arakawa-Karyu River Office. (2017b). Guide for the visit to the Arakawa River. Tokyo, Japan: Author.

Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI). (2019). [map]. Retrieved from

León, J., & March, A. (2014). Urban morphology as a tool for supporting tsunami rapid resilience: A case study of Talcahuano, Chile. Habitat International, 43, 250-262. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2014.04.006

Luo, P., He, B., Takara, K., Xiong, Y. E., Nover, D., Duan, W., & Fukushi, K. (2015). Historical assessment of Chinese and Japanese flood management policies and implications for managing future floods. Environmental Science & Policy, 48, 265-277. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2014.12.015

McKean, C. A. (2013, December 4). Tokyo building enormous “super levees” to hold back its river. NextCity. Retrieved from

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. (2017a). Current status of high standard levee. Retrieved from

in Japanese

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). (2017b). Towards the promotion of efficient maintenance of high standard levee. Retrieved from

in Japanese

Nakamura, H. (2016). Possibilities of neighborhood evacuation within a district in the event of a large-scale flood in a low-lying area: A case study of Shinden district in Tokyo. E3S Web of Conferences, 7, 19005. doi:10.1051/e3sconf/20160719005

Stalenberg, B., & Kikumori, Y. (2009). Urban flood control on the rivers of Tokyo metropolitan. In Urban water in Japan (11th ed., pp. 119-141). Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis. Edited by: Graaf & Hooimeijer

Takahashi, Y., & Uitto, J. I. (2004). Evolution of river management in Japan: from focus on economic benefits to a comprehensive view. Global Environmental Change, 14(8).

Takeuchi, K. (2002). Flood management in Japan-from rivers to basins. Water Int, 27, 20-26.

Tokyo Metropolitan Government. (2019). Lowland rivers projects in Tokyo. Retrieved from

Xu, H. (2013). The evolution and characteristics of the green space system planning in Japan. Modern Landscape Architecture, 138-141. Retrieved from



  • There are currently no refbacks.