The Recognition of Fragrant Plant Characteristic in Enhancing the Place Image for Royal Town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak


  • Intan Khasumarlina Mohd Khalid Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjong Malim, Perak, Malaysia
  • Osman M. Tahir Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Nor Atiah Ismail Universiti Putra Malaysia
  • Zulkifli Muslim Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia



Fragrant plant, Place Image, Royal Town


In Malay art, a flower or Bunga expressed about the beauties and aesthetics. At the same time, the fragrant plant belief to be a representative of paradise, which have a pleasant fragrance. It is observed that the used of aromatic plants has been a practices in Perak's royal ceremonies. This paper aims to identify the qualitative response on the recognition of the fragrant plant to support the reinforcement of place image of Kuala Kangsar as Royal Town of Perak. The results reveal that Lotus (Nelumbo), Melur (Jasminum), and Tanjong (Mimusops elengi) are mostly associated with Royal Town Kuala Kangsar, Perak. (100 words max.)

Keywords: Fragrant plant; Place Image, Royal Town

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.



Aziz, A. S., & Olalere, F. E. (2013). Integrating Malay Tangible Cultural Heritage into Furniture Design: An Approach to Enhance Product through Emotional and Spiritual Contents. The Online Journal of Science and Technology (TOJSAT), 3(4), 77–85

Brown, B., Perkins, D. D., & Brown, G. (2003). Place attachment in a revitalizing neighborhood: Individual and block levels of analysis. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23, 259–271

Breakwell, G.M., 1986. Coping with Threatened Identities. Methuen, London.

Chandler, T., & Polkinghorne, M. (2017). A Review of Sources for Visualising the Royal Palace of Angkor, Cambodia, in the 13th Century. In S. Hoppe, S. Breitling, & W.T.A.O.H. Messemer (Eds) (Vol. 3, pp. 149–170). Palatinum.

Cheng, C., & Kuo, H. (2015). Bonding to a new place never visited : Exploring the relationship between landscape elements and place bonding. Tourism Management, 46, 546–560.

Chiranjibi, P., Sudhakar, R., Dhal, N.K., Rashmita, D. (2006). Some phytotherapeutic claims by tribals of Rayagada district, Orissa, India. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 10, 189–197.

Cresswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry & thesis design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). California: Sage Publications, Inc.

Farnum, J., Hall, T., & Kruger, L. (2005). Sense of Place in Natural Resource Recreation and Tourism: An Evaluation and Assessment of Research Findings (Vol. PNW-GTR-66).

Fatos, A. (2011). Islamic gardens with a special emphasis on the Ottoman paradise gardens: The sense of place between imagery and reality. Online Journal of Communication and Media Technologies, 1(4): 55-96

Ginting.N. & N.V.Rahman. (2016).Maimoon Palace Heritage District in Medan, Indonesia: What we preserve and why we preserve?. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences 222 ( 2016 ) 332 – 341.

Giuliani, M., & Feldman, R. (1993). Place attachment in a developmental and cultural context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 13, 267–274.

Groat.L & D. Wang (2013). Architectural Reseach Methods (2nd edition). John Wiley & Sons

Hammit, E., Kyle, G., & Oh, C. (2009). Comparison of Place Bonding Models in Recreation Resource Management. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(1), 57–72.

Harun, N. Z., Fairuz, D. N., & Nordin, N. A. (2015). The roles of Urban Heritage in determining the image of the Royal Town of Sri Menanti, Negeri Sembilan. Planning Malaysia, 13(November 2016), 85–100.

Harun, N. Z., Mohd Ariffin, N. A., & Abdullah, F. (2017). Changes and threats in the Preservation of the Traditional Malay Landscape. Planning Malaysia, 15(2017), 69–78.

Ichita et al. (2016). The Advanced Hydraulic City Structure of the Royal City of Angkor Thom and Vicinity Revealed through a High- Resolution Red Relief Image Map. Archaeological Discovery, 04(01), 22–36.

Jelani Harun. (1999). Nuruddin al-Raniri's Bustan al-Salatin: A Universal History and Adab Work from Seventeenth-Century Aceh. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). London: School of Oriental and African Studies.

Jelani Harun. (2009). Bustan Al-Salatin: The Garden of Kings: A Malay Mirror for Rulers. Pulau Pinang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Kamil, S. M., & Yunos, M. Y. M. (2015). Establishing Malaysia Islamic Garden-Based On Quranic Paradise Imagery: Descriptive Analysis From Tafsir Surah Waqiah. Advances in Environmental Biology, 9(23), 115-119.

Kendal, D., William, K., & William, N. (2012). Plant traits link people’s plant preferences to the composition of their gardens. Landscape and Urban Planning, 105((1-2)), 34–42.

Kro¨ nert, R., Steinhardt, U., & Volks, M. (2001). Landscape Balance and Landscape Assessment (Vol. 8). Springer -Verlag Berlin.

Lynch, K (1981) A Theory of Good City Form. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA

Mohd Hussain, N. H., Hassan, K., & Mt Akhir, N. (2016). Establishing the Malay Landscape Elements through Islamic Garden Perspective. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 1(3).

Mustafa, Mohd & Sarbini-zin. (2014). Amalan Perubatan tradisional Masyarakat Melayu Sarawak. Journal of Social and Behavioral Sciences (134), 316 – 322 ICLALIS

O'Donnell, P. M. (2008). Urban cultural landscapes and the Spirit of Place, Presented in 6th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium, September 2008, Quebec, Canada.

Othman, R., Illani, N., Razak, A., & Ishak, N. (2014). Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional knowledge on Plant Used in Traditional Bath (Mandiserom ) among Malay Midwives in Perak and Negeri Sembilan. Research Journal of Biological Sciences, 9, 193–196.

Ramle, N. H., Shuaib, A. A., Abdullah, R., & Mat Rasat, M. S. (2014). Islamic Elements of Plants Selection on Malay Landscape in Kota Bharu City. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 8(82), 265–271. Retrieved from

Ramli, N. (2015). Keep Kuala Kangsar Naturally Beautiful. News Straits Times Press (M) Berhad.

Hay, R. (1998). Sense of place in a developmental context. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18,5e29.

Relph, E. (1976). Place and Placelessness (London, Pion).

Rollero, C. & De Piccoli, N. (2010). Place attachment, identification and environment perception: An empirical study. Journal of Environmental Psychology (article in press).

Salleh, I. H., Rashid, M. S. A., & Sakip, S. R. M. (2016). Malay Garden Concept from the Traditional Malay Landscape Design. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222, 548–556.

Shuaib, A. A., & Enoch, F. (2014). Integrating the Malay Traditional Design Elements into Contemporary Design : An Approach towards Sustainable Innovation. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 59–67.

Silva, E. (2016). The Hidden Petropolis Modernism. VIRUS 12, Radical Modern.

Stokols, D., & Shumaker, S. (1981). People in Places: A Transactional View of Settings. In J. H. Harvey (Ed.), Cognition, Social Behavior, and the Environment (pp. (pp. 441–488).

Sutton Coldfield Civic Society. (2015). Sutton Coldfield High Street Conservation Area Character Appraisal and Management Plan: Character Appraisal and Management Plan Supplementary Planning Document. Birmingham City Council.

Twigger-Ross, C.L., Bonaiuto, M., & Breakwell, G. (2003). Identity theories and environmental psychology. In M. Bonnes, T. Lee & M. Bonaiuto (Eds.), Psychological

Theories for Environmental Issues (pp 203-233). Aldershot, England: Ashgate.

Tabuti, J.R.S., Dhillion, S.S., Lye, K.A. (2003a). Traditional medicine in BulamogiCounty, Uganda. Its practitioners, users & viability. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 85, 119–129.

Tabuti, J.R.S., Lye, L.A., Dhillion, S.S. (2003b). Traditional herbal drugs of Bulam- ogi, Uganda: plants, use, and administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88, 19–44.

Tuan, Y. (1980). Rootedness versus Sense of place. Landscape, 24(1), 3–8.

Ujang, N. (2012). Place Attachment and Continuity of Urban Place Identity. In Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences (Vol. 49, pp. 156–167).

Williams, D., & Vaske, J. (2003). The Measurement of Place Attachment: Validity and Generalizability of a Psychometric Approach. Forest Science, 49, 830–840.

Yin, R. K. (2003). Case Study Research: Design and Method (Vol. 5). London: Sage Publications.

Zakaria, A. Z., Salleh, I. H., & Rashid, M. S. A. (2014). Identity of Malay Garden Design to be Promoted as the Cultural Tourism Product in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 298–307.



How to Cite

Mohd Khalid, I. K., M. Tahir, O., Ismail, N. A., & Muslim, Z. (2019). The Recognition of Fragrant Plant Characteristic in Enhancing the Place Image for Royal Town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 4(12), 213-220.