Validation of Vis-Screen Mobile Application for Easy Vision Test by General Public: A pilot study


  • Siti Nor Aishah Abdul Rahman Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UNISZA)
  • Abdul Mutalib Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Atif Amin Baig Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)
  • Syed Hatim Noor Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA)



visual acuity, mobile application, vision screening, blindness


Visual impairment and blindness is a serious global concern. Poor awareness and late detection are significant factors contributing to the vast number of visually impaired people worldwide. The ubiquitous use of smartphone devices enables the general public to access various services provided easily. Our Vis-Screen mobile application is developed based on the necessity for early detection of any vision problem to avoid further vision loss. Simple built-in algorithm and user-friendly features of this application suits any laypersons to do vision testing among themselves with only minimal training needed, therefore promoting the importance of healthy vision within the community.

Keywords: visual acuity; mobile application; vision screening; blindness

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.



Ackland, P., Resnikoff, S., & Bourne, R. (2018). World Blindness and Visual Impairment: Despite many successes, the problem is growing. Community Eye Health Journal, 30(100), 71-73.

Akobeng, A. K. (2007). Understanding Diagnostic Tests 1: Sensitivity, Specificity and Predictive Values. Acta Paediatrica, 96, 338-341.

American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Ophthalmology and Committee on Practice and Ambulatory Medicine. (2012). Instrument-Based Pediatric Vision Screening Policy Statement. American Academy of Pediatrics, 130(5).

Artstein, R., & Poesio, M. (2008). Inter-Coder Agreement for Computational Linguistics. Computational Linguistics, 34(4), 555-596.

Bastawrous, A., Rono, H. K., Livingstone, I. A. T. Weiss, H. A., Jordan, S., Kuper, H., & Burton, M. J. (2015). Development and Validation of a Smartphone-based Visual Acuity Test (Peek Acuity) for Clinical Practice and Community-based Fieldwork. JAMA Ophthalmology, 133(8), 930-937.

Bourne, R. R. A., Flaxman, S. R., Braithwaite, T., Cicinelli, M. V, Das, A., Jonas, J. B., … Vision Loss Expert Group. (2017). Magnitude, Temporal Trends, and Projections of the Global Prevalence of Blindness and Distance and Near Vision Impairment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The Lancet. Global Health, 5(9), e888-e897.

Chew, F. L. M., Salowi, M. A., Mustari, Z., Husni, M. A., Hussein, E., Adnan, T. H., …Goh, P.-P. (2018). Estimates of Visual Impairment and Its Causes from The National Eye Survey in Malaysia (NESII). PloS One, 13(6), 11.

Chua, J., Lim, B., Fenwick, E. K., Gan, A. T. L., Tan, A. G., Lamoureux, E., … Cheng, C.-Y. (2017). Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Undiagnosed Visually Significant Cataract: The Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Study. PloS One, 1-15.

Dandona, R., & Dandona, L. (2001). Socioeconomic status and Blindness. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 85, 1484-1488.

Flaxman, S. R., Bourne, R. R. A., Resnikoff, S., Ackland, P., Braithwaite, T., Cicinelli, M. V, … Wong, T. Y. (2017). Global Causes of Blindness and Distance Vision Impairment 1990-2020: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health,5, 1221-1234.

Gounder, P. A., Cole, E., Colley, S., & Hille, D. M. (2014). Validation of a Portable Electronic Visual Acuity System. Journal of Mobile Technology in Medicine, 3(2), 35-39.

Kalpana, S., Karthick, J., & Jayarajini, S. (2013). Comparison of Static Visual Acuity Between Snellen and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Charts. International Journal of Educational Research and Development, 2(3), 82-88.

Knight, V. F., Khairi, N. M. Omar, R., Ramlee, A., & Isa, M. M. (2018). Characteristics of visually impaired children aged below 4 years in two public tertiary hospitals in Selangor, Malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 1, 18-25.

Lakshminarayanan, V., Zelek, J., & McBride, A. (2015). “Smartphone Science†in Eye Care and Medicine. Optics and Photonics, 44-51.

Lodhia, V., Karanja, S., Lees, S., & Bastawrous, A. (2016). Acceptability, Usability and Views on Deployment of Peek, a Mobile Phone mHealth Intervention for Eye Care in Kenya: Qualitative Study. JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth,4(2), 1-16.

Marmamula, S., Keeffe, J. E., Narsaiah, S., Khanna, R. C., & Rao, G. N. (2014). Population-based Assessment of Sensitivity and Specificity of a Pinhole for Detection of Significant Refractive Errors in the Community. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 97, 523-527.

Murthy, G. V. S. (2000). Vision Testing for Refractive Errors in Schools. Community Eye Health, 13(33), 3-5.

Mutalib, A., Zin, N. M., Shahir, A., & Hassan, A. (2018). A Cataract Surgery Barrier Model in Eastern Zone of Peninsular Malaysia. Environment-Behaviour Proceeding Journal, 3(9), 57-62.

Rono, H. K., Bastawrous, A., Macleod, D., Wanjala, E., Tanna, G. L. Di, Weiss, H. A., & Burton, M. J. (2018). Smartphone-based Screening for Visual Impairment in Kenyan School Children: A Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial. Lancet Glob Health, 6, 924-932.

Salowi, M. A. (2016, May). The Cataract Free Zone Project. Malaysian Society of Ophthalmology.

Salowi, M. A., Ismail, M., & Hussin, D. A. (2017, April). Cataract Surgery Outcome Audit-Message from the Editors. National Eye Database, pp. 1-4.

Wolfram, C., Schuster, A. K., Elfein, H. M. Nickels, S., Schulz, A., Wild, P. S., … Pfeiffer, N. (2019). The Prevalence of Visual Impairment in the Adult Population. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 116, 289-295.

Yan, X., Chen, L., & Yan, H. (2019). Socio-economic status, Visual impairment and the Mediating Role of Lifestyles in Developed Rural Areas of China. PloS One, 1-18.




How to Cite

Abdul Rahman, S. N. A., Mutalib, A., Baig, A. A., & Noor, S. H. (2019). Validation of Vis-Screen Mobile Application for Easy Vision Test by General Public: A pilot study. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 4(12), 173–179.