Patterns of Stationary Activities in the Elevated Pedestrian Networks of High-Density Asian Cities: The case of Mong Kok, Hong Kong
Keywords:Skywalk, Behavioral mapping, Stationary uses, Hong Kong
Urban areas are increasingly failing to provide citizens with adequate and quality public open spaces. In this regard, Hong Kong characterises an extreme condition with 2.7-2.8 m2 of open space per capita. The burden of this scarcity falls most heavily on economically disadvantaged social groups, such as migrant domestic workers. In this context, grade separation pedestrian systems that were originally designed for mobility purposes, can provide space for sociability-oriented stationary uses. This study finds that the density of stationary activities in a typical elevated pedestrian network is as high as 1.2 person/m2.
Keywords: Skywalk; Behavioural mapping; Stationary uses; Hong Kong
eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Agyeman, J., & Zavestoski, S. (2015). Incomplete streets: processes, practices, and possibilities. Oxon: Routledge.
Bechtel, R., & Zeisel, J. (1987). Observation: the world under a glass. In R. Bechtel, R. Marans, & W. Michelson (Eds.), Methods in Environmental and Behavioral Research. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Cheshmehzangi, A., & Heath, T. (2017). Effects of Temporary Markets on Spatial Inter-relations: A behavioural analysis of a public realm in the UK. Journal of ASIAN Behavioural Studies, 2(3), 41. https://doi.org/10.21834/jabs.v2i3.190
Corbett, M. J., Xie, F., & Levinson, D. (2009). Evolution of the Second-Story City: The Minneapolis Skyway System. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 36(4), 711–724. https://doi.org/10.1068/b34066
Cui, J., Allan, A., & Lin, D. (2013). The development of grade separation pedestrian system: A review. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 38, 151–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2013.06.004
Cui, J., Allan, A., Taylor, M. A. P., & Lin, D. (2013). Developing Shanghai Underground Pedestrian System Under Urbanization: Mobility, Functionality and Equity. Journal of Architecture and Urbanism, 36(4), 283–297. https://doi.org/10.3846/20297955.2012.752933
Elsheshtawy, Y. (2013). Where the sidewalk ends: Informal street corner encounters in Dubai. Cities, 31, 382–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2012.12.001
Fruin, J. (1971). Pedestrian and Planning Design. Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners.
Gehl, J. (1987). Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2005.01.001
Ghavampour, E., Del Aguila, M., & Vale, B. (2017). GIS mapping and analysis of behaviour in small urban public spaces. Area, 49(3), 349–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12323
Goličnik Marušic, B. (2016). Discrepancy between likely and actual occupancies of urban outdoor places. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, 18, 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ufug.2016.06.001
Hanan, H. (2017). Every Day Practices and Experiential Urban Space. Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies, 2(5), 27. https://doi.org/10.21834/aje-bs.v2i5.220
Harris, A. (2018). Engineering Formality: Flyover and Skywalk Construction in Mumbai. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 42(2), 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2427.12525
HKSAR Census and Statistics Department. (2016). 2016 Population By-census.
Lam, P., & Kung, F. (2004). Innovative and sustainable construction for a footbridge system in congested mongkok, hong kong. HKIE Transactions Hong Kong Institution of Engineers, 11(1), 15–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/1023697X.2004.10667938
Law, L. (2001). Home cooking: Filipino women and geographies of the senses in Hong Kong. Ecumene, 8(Figure 1), 264–283.
Maitland, B. (1992). Hidden cities: The irresistible rise of the North American interior city. Cities, 9(3), 162–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/0264-2751(92)90012-T
Mehta, V. (2009). Look closely and you will see, listen carefully and you will hear: Urban design and social interaction on streets. Journal of Urban Design, 14(1), 29–64. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574800802452658
Muniandy, P. (2015). Informality and the politics of temporariness: Ethnic migrant economies in Little Bangladesh and Little Burma in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. International Sociology, 30(6), 561–578. https://doi.org/10.1177/0268580915605649
Nikolaeva, A., Adey, P., Cresswell, T., Lee, J. Y., Nóvoa, A., & Temenos, C. (2019). Commoning mobility: Towards a new politics of mobility transitions. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 44(2), 346–360. https://doi.org/10.1111/tran.12287
Ostertag, E. (2016). Transitory community hubs: How temporary migration transforms a neighbourhood in Singapore. City, 20(1), 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1080/13604813.2015.1096058
Rasidi, M. H., Jamirsah, N., & Said, I. (2012). Urban Green Space Design Affects Urban Residents’ Social Interaction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.12.242
Robertson, K. A. (1993). Pedestrianization strategies for downtown planners skywalks versus pedestrian malls. Journal of the American Planning Association, 59(3), 361–370. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944369308975887
Rossini, F. (2019). Temporary urban intervention in the vertical city: a place-making project to re-activate the public spaces in Hong Kong. Journal of Urban Design, 24(2), 305–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/13574809.2018.1507674
Sun, Z., Bell, S., Scott, I., & Qian, J. (2019). Everyday use of urban street spaces: the spatio-temporal relations between pedestrians and street vendors: a case study in Yuncheng, China. Landscape Research, 00(00), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1080/01426397.2019.1646231
Tammikakul, P., & Raksawin, K. (2019). The Pattern of Activity Analysis by GIS in Chiang Mai Public Plaza, Thailand. Asian Journal of Environment-Behaviour Studies, 4(13), 30. https://doi.org/10.21834/aje-bs.v4i13.346
Tan, Z., & Xue, C. Q. L. (2014). Walking as a Planned Activity: Elevated Pedestrian Network and Urban Design Regulation in Hong Kong. Journal of Urban Design, 19(5), 722–744.
Tang, B. (2017). Is the distribution of public open space in Hong Kong equitable, why not? Landscape and Urban Planning, 161, 80–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2017.01.004
Terranova, C. N. (2009). Ultramodern Underground Dallas: Vincent Ponte’s Pedestrian-Way as Systematic Solution to the Declining Downtown. Urban History Review, 37(2), 18. https://doi.org/10.7202/029574ar
Tillu, J. S. (2011). Spatial empowerment: the appropriation of public spaces by Filipina domestic workers in Hong Kong. Master Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from https://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/67244
UN-Habitat. (2013). Streets as public spaces and drivers of urban prosperity. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
Villani, C. (2018). CBD: A NEW POROSITY. In C. Yuan (Ed.), Walkable Cities in High Density China: Livable, Healthy and Sustainable (pp. 83–109). Shanghai: Tongji University Press.
Villani, C., Zordan, M., Talamini, G., & Cheng, Y. H. (2019). Temporarily Pedestrianized Street in Hong Kong: Governmental Strategy of Implementation and Tactics of Appropriation by Foreign Domestic Workers. In Proceedings of the AESOP 2019 Congress Book of Papers (p. 2559). Venice: The AESOP 2019 Congress.
Von Schönfeld, K. C., & Bertolini, L. (2017). Urban streets: Epitomes of planning challenges and opportunities at the interface of public space and mobility. Cities, 68(June 2016), 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2017.04.012
Wan, S. W. S. (2010). The Role of the Skywalk System in the Development of Hong Kong’s Central Business District. Ssrn. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1699686
Wang, W., Siu, K. W. M., & Wong, K. C. K. (2016). The pedestrian bridge as everyday place in high-density cities: An urban reference for necessity and sufficiency of placemaking. Urban Design International, 21(3), 236–253. https://doi.org/10.1057/udi.2016.3
Whyte, W. H. (1980). The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces (12th print). New York: Project for Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/social-life-of-small-urban-spaces/oclc/907415693&referer=brief_results
Xue, C. Q. L., Manuel, K. K., & Chung, R. H. Y. (2001). Public space in the old derelict city area - a case study of Mong Kok, Hong Kong. Urban Design International, 6(1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.udi.9000032
Yin, R. K. (1984). Applied social research methods series Case study research: Design and methods. London: SAGE Publications.
Zacharias, J., & He, J. (2018). Hong Kong’s urban planning experiment in enhancing pedestrian movement from underground space to the surface. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 82(July), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2018.07.025
Zordan, M., Talamini, G., & Villani, C. (2019). The Association between Ground Floor Features and Public Open Space Face-To-Face Interactions: Evidence from Nantou Village, Shenzhen. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(24), 4934. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244934
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.