The Influence of Job Demand, Respect, and Rapport on Work Engagement of Employees in the Foodservice Sector

t b a


Many foodservice operators in Malaysia depend on superior services to entice customers to keep visiting their business. A purposive convenience sampling was chosen and questionnaires were distributed to 303 employees in the foodservice industry in three selected districts in Terengganu, Malaysia. Results of the inferential analysis revealed that there are positive relationships between two of the independent variables, respects, and rapport with the dependent variable, job engagement. Job demand, however, has no significant influence on Job Engagement. We proposed that trust, efficient communication, mutual respect, and the honest relationship has a strong influence on employee’s engagement with their job.


Job Engagement; Job Demand; Rapport; Foodservice Industry


Fatima, J. K., & Di Mascio, R. (2018). Reversing the dependency-trust relationship in B2C services. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 41, 1-10.

Bakker A. and Evangelia Demerouti, (2008). Towards A Model of Work Engagement. Journal of Development International, 13(3), 209-223.

Bakker A., Maria Tims and Daantje Derks, (2012). Proactive Personality and Job Performance: The Role of Job Crafting and Work Engagement. Journal of Human Relations, 65(10), 1359-1378.

Müceldili, B., & Erdil, O. (2016). Finding fun in work: The effect of workplace fun on taking charge and job engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 235, 304-312.

Bies, R. J., & Moag, J. S. (1986). Interactional Justice: Communication Criteria of Fairness. In R. Lewicki (Ed.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations.1, 43-55.

Carey, J.C., Hamilton, D.L. And Shaklin, G. (1986). Development of an Instrument to Measure Rapport between College Roommates. Journal of College Student Personnel, 27(3), 269-273.

Chen, Z., Zhang, X. And Vogel, D. (2011). Exploring the Underlying Processes between Conflict and Knowledge Sharing: A Work Engagement Perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 41 Iss: 5, pp.1005-1033.

Cooper-Thomas, H. D., Xu, J., & M. Saks, A. (2018). The differential value of resources in predicting employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 33(4/5), 326-344.

Demerouti, E, Arnold B., Friedhelm N. And Wilmar S. (2001). The Job Demands Resources Model of Burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499-512.

Gorgievski, M.J., Bakker, A.B. And Schaufeli, W.B. (2010). Work Engagement and Workaholism: Comparing the Self-Employed and Salaried Employees. The Journal of Positive Psychology, Vol. 5, pp.83-96.

Hanaysha, J. (2016). Testing the effects of employee engagement, work environment, and organizational learning on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 289-297.

Hobfoll, S.E., Johnson, R.J., Ennis, N. & Jackson, A.P. (2003). Resource Loss, Resource Gain, and Emotional Outcomes among Inner City Women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 632-643.

Judge, T.A., Van Vianen, A.E.M. & De Pater, I. (2004). Emotional Stability, Core Self-Evaluations, and Job Outcomes: A Review of the Evidence and an Agenda for Future Research. Human Performance, 17, 325-346.

Kaski, T., Niemi, J., & Pullins, E. (2018). Rapport building in authentic B2B sales interaction. Industrial Marketing Management, 69, 235-252.

Locke, J., Violante, S., Pullmann, M. D., Kerns, S. E., Jungbluth, N., & Dorsey, S. (2018). Agreement and discrepancy between supervisor and clinician alliance: Associations with clinicians’ perceptions of psychological climate and emotional exhaustion. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 45(3), 505-517.

Khan, J. A., Sheraz, M., & Maher, S. (2018). Impact of Organizational Justice On Organizational Commitment: Evidence from KPK Private Sector Universities. City University Research Journal, 8(2), 236-246.

Macey, W.H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K.M. And Young, S.A. (2009). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.

Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2019). Creating shared value. In Managing sustainable business (pp. 323-346). Springer, Dordrecht.

Rogers, K. (2018). Do your employees feel respected? Harvard Business Review, 21.62 -71.

Rich, B.L., Lepine, J.A. And Crawford, E.R. (2010). Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 53, pp.617-635.

Schaufeli, W. B., Taris, T. W., & Van Rhenen, W. (2008). Work holism, Burnout and Work Engagement: Three of a Kind or Three Different Kinds of Employee Well-Being. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57 (2), 173-203.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R. (2009). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach. 5th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., pp.276-285.

Siti Haryati and Ndubisi (2011). The Effect of Respect and Rapport on Relationship Quality Perception of Small Healthcare Firms. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 23(2), 135-151.

Tyler, T.R. And Blader, S.L. (2003). The Group Engagement Model: Procedural Justice, Social Identity, and Cooperative Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 7 Iss: 4, pp.349-361.

Van Dick, R., Grojean, M.W., Christ, O. And Wieseke, J. (2006). Identity and the Extra Mile: Relationships between Organizational Identification and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 283-301.

Van Emmerik, I.J.H., Bakker, A.B. And Euwema, M.C. (2009). Explaining Employees’ Evaluations of Organizational Change with the Job-Demands Resources Model. Career Development International, 14, 594-613.

Veit, D., Trenz, M., Frey, A., & Tan, C. W. (2018). On Rapport Uncertainty in the Sharing Economy–Extending the Categories of Uncertainty.



  • There are currently no refbacks.