The Key Determinant Factors for Social Sustainability in Traditional Settlement


  • Najiha Jaffar Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Nor Zalina Harun Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
  • Saiful Arif Abdullah Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia



Social Sustainability, Traditional Settlement, Factor Analysis, Kuala Terengganu


Successful traditional settlements refer to a settlement environment that spontaneously built by residents who consider their existing site integrates with excellent social sustainability indicators. This study aims to determine the critical factors of physical character for social sustainability of a traditional settlement with the objective to identify the types of physical characteristics deemed as significant in daily social interaction among the locals. To achieve this, a quantitative method was employed using questionnaire survey distributed to 400 residents in two historic settlements, namely Kampung Pulau Duyong and Kampung Losong located at Kuala Terengganu. Both sites are selected due to good conservation practices observed concerning the physical landscape. The results generated from the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) revealed eleven factors (11) related to social sustainability. Such factors then categorised into six latent factors, which are the preservation of local identity, safety, provision of infrastructure, natural qualities, accessibility, and availability of public spaces. The findings recall the relationship between physical aspects and social sustainability as a step towards improvement in historic site preservation efforts.

Keywords: social sustainability; traditional settlement; factor analysis; Kuala Terengganu

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Author Biographies

Najiha Jaffar, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Institute of the Malay World and Civilization

Nor Zalina Harun, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Institute for Environment and Development


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How to Cite

Jaffar, N., Harun, N. Z., & Abdullah, S. A. (2019). The Key Determinant Factors for Social Sustainability in Traditional Settlement. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 4(12), 43–52.



Community Environment / Social Psychology