A Reflective Measurement Model of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Organizational Cynicism


  • Muhammad Fikri Abdul Aziz Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Shereen Noranee Universiti Teknologi MARA
  • Norfadzilah Abd Razak Universiti Teknologi MARA




Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Organizational Cynicism, Organizational Performance, Work-Life Balance


The purpose of this study is to examine the reflective measurement model of organizational culture, organizational citizenship behaviour and organizational cynicism among academicians in a selected local university. This study conducted a pilot study to 100 academicians using a convenience sampling method from the selected local university. The data collected were further analysed on the reflective measurement model by applying the Structural Equation Modelling using Partial Least Square (PLS). The finding revealed the assessment of factor loading, composite reliability, average variance extracted and discriminant validity to confirm the reflective measurement model.

Keywords: Organizational Citizenship Behaviour, Organizational Cynicism, Organizational Performance, Work-Life Balance

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2020. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v5i13.2067


Acaray, A., & Yildirim, S. (2017). The impact of personality traits on organizational cynicism in the education sector. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 13(1), 65–76.

Adesina, Raimi, S. O., & Bolaji, O. A. (2016). Teachers’ attitude, years of teaching experience and self-efficacy as determinants of teachers’ productivity in teachers’ professional development programme in Ibadan metropolis. Journal Of Emerging Trends in Educational Research And Policy Studies, 7(3), 204–211.

Akar, H., & Çelik, O. T. (2019). Organizational justice and cynicism: A mixed method study at schools. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 8(1), 189.

Ariani, D. W. (2017). Relationship lecturers’ organizational citizenship behavior, students’ motivation and students’ performance in Indonesia. Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science, 9(2), 93–103.

Awais, M., Aziz, K., Shahbaz, S., Arslan, M., & Rahat, Q. (2017). Impact of workplace perception and servant leadership on organizational citizenship: The mediating role of employee cynicism. International Journal of Research, 4(9), 1479–1492.

Balyer, A. (2017). Trust in school principals: Teachers’ opinions. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(2), 317–325.

Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee citizenship. The Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587–595.

Bayram, A., Mehmet, D., & Karaca, M. (2017). The role of mediation of the organizational cynicism the relationship between leader-member exchange and job performance: An examination on the elementary teachers of public personnel in central Anatolia region. Journal of Business and Management, 19(1), 39–47.

Cheasakul, U., & Varma, P. (2016). The influence of passion and empowerment on organizational citizenship behavior of teachers mediated by organizational commitment. Contaduría Administración, 1–19.

Claudia, M. (2018). The influence of perceived organizational support, job satisfaction and organizational commitment toward organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Indonesian Economy and Business, 33(1), 23–45.

Edwards, J. R., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2000). On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures. Psychological Methods, 5(2), 155–174.

Eissenstat, S. J., & Lee, Y. (2017). Understanding organizational citizenship behavior: The counselor’s role. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 10(6), 491–507.

Etudor-eyo, E., & Atakpa, I. W. (2017). Motivation and organizational citizenship behaviour of academics in universities in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria. International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research, 5(6), 80–87.

Faruk, L., & Sitar, K. (2016). Examining the organizational cynicism among teachers at schools: A mixed methods study. Educational Research and Reviews, 11(21), 2009–2020.

Fernández, J. C., Moreno, O. C., & Lombana, A. F. (2018). Organizational cynicism-an exploration analysis-case: Workers in the city of Cartagena de Indias (Colombia). Revista Espacios, 39(26), 1–16.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39.

Gunawan, A., Barsa, L., & Tua, H. (2018). Determinant of lecturers work satisfaction and implication on lecturer’s performance at maritime higher education in DKI Jakarta. International Review of Management and Marketing, 8(4), 14–23.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Edinburgh: Pearson Education Limited.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling. In SAGE Publication Incorporated (2nd ed.). Los Angeles.

Hairuddin, A., Gani, M. U., Sinring, B., & Arifin, Z. (2017). Motivation, competence and organizational commitment effect on lecturers’ job satisfaction and lecturers’ performance. International Journal of Management & Social Sciences, 6(3), 419–428.

Hemakumara, Khatibi, & Johar, M. G. M. (2018). Job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior among the administrative staff of state universities in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, 7(8), 40–44.

Hubley, A. M. (2014). Discriminant validity. In Encyclopedia of Quality of Life and Well-Being Research (pp. 1413–1732).

Husin, N. A., Ghazali, A. S., Abdullah, N., & Hadi, M. I. A. (2018). Work-life balance of Malaysian lecturers. Australian Academy of Business and Economics Review, 4(1), 43–49.

Ikinci, S. S. (2018). Examination of relations between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational cynicism in the health sector. Journal of Health Administration, 21(3), 511–528.

John R, R. (2002). The C-OAR-SE procedure for scale development in marketing. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 19(4), 305–335.

Nair, P., & Kamalanabhan, T. J. (2013). The impact of cynicism on ethical intentions of Indian managers: The moderating role of their level of management. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 1(2), 155–159.

Obedgiu, V., Bagire, V., & Mafabi, S. (2017). Examination of organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behaviour among local government civil servants in Uganda. Journal of Management Development, 36(10), 1304–1316.

Ocampo, L., Acedillo, V., & Bacunador, A. M. (2018). A historical review of the development of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and its implications for the twenty-first century. Personnel Review, 47(4), 821–862.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R. H., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 1(2), 107–142.

Rose, K. (2016). Examining organizational citizenship behavior in the context of human resource development: An integrative review of the literature. Human Resource Development Review, 15(3), 295–316.

Scott, K. A., & Zweig, D. (2016). Understanding and mitigating cynicism in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 31(2), 1–31.

Singh, D. (2018). Organizational cynicism : A literature review. International Journal of Management, Technology And Engineering, 8(7), 1114–1124.

Skaalvik, E. M., & Skaalvik, S. (2016). Teacher stress and teacher self-efficacy as predictors of engagement, emotional exhaustion, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Creative Education, 7, 1785–1799.

Somech, A., & Drach-zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra-role behavior in schools: The relationships between job satisfaction, sense of efficacy, and teacher’s extra-role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 649–659.

Somech, A., & Khotaba, S. (2017). An integrative model for understanding team organizational citizenship behavior: Its antecedents and consequences for educational teams. Journal of Educational Administration, 1–31.

Subramanian, K. R. (2016). Employee attitudes and management dilemma. International Journal of Combined Research & Development, 5(9), 1031–1037.

Thomas, N., & Gupta, S. (2018). Organizational cynicism: What every manager needs to know. Development and Learning in Organizations, 32(2), 16–19.

Turkmen, F., & Aykac, E. (2017). The association between organizational cynicism and organizational citizenship behavior: A case study. European Research Studies Journal, 20(4), 743–753.

Waheed, S., & Shah, A. A. (2017). Organisational citizenship behaviour among university teachers: An empirical study. International Journal of Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary Studies, 4(3), 248–253.

Yıldırım, F., & Kayapalı Yıldırım, S. (2016). Effects of cynicism on empowerment in organizations. Journal of Human Sciences, 13(3), 2–11.

Yılmaz, H., & Şencan, H. (2018). The effect of the organizational citizenship and cynicism behaviors on the management of hierarchical conflicts. International Review of Management and Marketing, 8(2), 118–130.

Yunus, J. @ N., & Kareem, O. A. (2016). Staff academic job behavior in Malaysian public university. Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(11), 303–311.




How to Cite

Abdul Aziz, M. F., Noranee, S., & Abd Razak, N. (2020). A Reflective Measurement Model of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour and Organizational Cynicism. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 5(13), 85–92. https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v5i13.2067



Educational / Learning Environment