Flood Risk Trend by using PCA and SPC Analysis at Muda River, Kedah


  • Jurina Jaafar School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor
  • Nur Syamimi Norisman School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor
  • Zulhafizal Othman School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Pahang, Bandar Tun Abdul Razak Jengka, Pahang
  • Nur Qudus Civil Engineering Department, Universitas Negeri Semarang, Semarang




Correlation Test, Principle Component Analysis, Statistical Process Control


PCA and SPC were used to identify data variables that trigger flooding and assess flood risk in the Muda River basin. Three (3) hydrologic variables, RL, WL, and SF are analyzed using correlation tests, PCA and SPC. The Pearson correlation test shown, SF and WL have significant correlation. The PCA indicates that all hydrologic variables are significant. The SPC shows ideal flood control values for the Muda River basin. The runoff value exceeding the UCL increases flood risk. Rapid expansion of development and anthropogenic activities have caused heavy rainfall and hydrologic variables to increase above normal levels.


Abd Halim, M., Shakir Mohd Saudi, A., Khairul Amri Kamarudin, M., Mahmud, M., Bala Krishnan, A., & Nizam Mohd Isa, K. (2018). Assessment on Regional Flood Risk Trend in Northern Region of Malaysia: Case Study in Muda River Basin, Kedah. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7(4.34), 75. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i4.34.23584 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i4.34.23584

Araujo, 2010. (2017). Инновационные подходы к обеспечению качества в здравоохраненииNo Title. Вестник Росздравнадзора, 6(May), 5–9.

Bernama. (2021, September 20). Tiada Pembalakan di Hutan Simpan gunung jerai [METROTV]. Harian Metro. Retrieved January 20, 2022, from https://www.hmetro.com.my/mutakhir/2021/09/757004/tiada-pembalakan-di-hutan-simpan-gunung-jerai-metrotv

Bubeck, P., Otto, A., & Weichselgartner, J. (2017). Societal Impacts of Flood Hazards. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Natural Hazard Science, March 2018. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.281 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199389407.013.281

C E F Monjardin, K M Transfiguracion, J P J Mangunay, K M Paguia, F. A. A. U. and F. J. T. (2021). Determination of River Water Level Triggering Flood in Manghinao River in Bauan , Batangas , Philippines. 18(3), 181–192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.24191/jmeche.v18i3.15425

Cheng, Y., Sang, Y., Wang, Z., Guo, Y., & Tang, Y. (2021). Effects of Rainfall and Underlying Surface on Flood Recession—The Upper Huaihe River Basin Case. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 12(1), 111–120. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-020-00310-w DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13753-020-00310-w

Collenn, C., Carl, A. A., Kathleen, H., Gwen, S. T., Paul, V., & Clare, M. V. G. (2020). River water lever sensor as river flood warning system. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 15(4), 138–150. https://doi.org/10.5897/ijps2020.4866 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5897/IJPS2020.4866

Dobriyal, P., Badola, R., Tuboi, C., & Hussain, S. A. (2017). A review of methods for monitoring streamflow for sustainable water resource management. Applied Water Science, 7(6), 2617–2628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0488-y DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13201-016-0488-y

Fentaw, F., Melesse, A. M., Hailu, D., & Nigussie, A. (2019). Precipitation and streamflow variability in Tekeze River basin, Ethiopia. Extreme Hydrology and Climate Variability: Monitoring, Modelling, Adaptation and Mitigation, Exodus 7, 103–121. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815998-9.00010-5 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-815998-9.00010-5

Julien, P. Y., Ghani, A. A., Zakaria, N. A., Abdullah, R., & Chang, C. K. (2010). Case Study: Flood Mitigation of the Muda River, Malaysia. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 136(4), 251–261. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)hy.1943-7900.0000163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HY.1943-7900.0000163

Ghani, A. A., Ali, R., Zakaria, N. A., Hasan, Z. A., Chang, C. K., & Ahamad, M. S. S. (2010). A temporal change study of the Muda River system over 22 years. International Journal of River Basin Management, 8(1), 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1080/15715121003715040 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15715121003715040


'Gunung jerai floods not an act of god but man-made'. The Vibes. (2021, August 20). Retrieved January 20, 2022, from https://www.thevibes.com/articles/news/38872/gunung-jerai-floods-not-an-act-of-god-but-man-made

Mughal, M. H., Shaikh, Z. A., Khand, Z. H., Rajput, A., & Akhtar, F. (2021). A Systematic Review of Ontology-Based River Streamflow and Flood Data Management Challenges. Quaid-e-Awam University Research Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 19(1), 40–50. https://doi.org/10.52584/qrj.1901.06 DOI: https://doi.org/10.52584/QRJ.1901.06

Nor, P., Kandari, A., Shakir, A., Saudi, M., Chyang, J., Khairul, M., Kamarudin, A., Hafiz, M., Saad, M., Azid, A., Surayya, N., & Mahmud, M. (2018). Flood Risk Pattern Recognition Analysis in Klang River Basin. International Journal of Engineering & Technology, 7, 86–90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i4.34.23586

Reddy, P. R., & Reddy, D. V. (2013). Hydrology and water resources engineering. International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering, 6(5).

Saudi, A. S. M., Kamarudin, M. K. A., Ridzuan, I. S. D., Ishak, R., Azid, A., & Rizman, Z. I. (2018). Flood risk index pattern assessment: case study in Langat River Basin. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, 9(2S), 12. https://doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i2s.2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i2s.2

SUKAR, M., & TOBUL, S. (2011). Effect of Human Factors on Occurrence of Flood and Torrent Events In Batman, Southeastern Turkey. Batman’Da (GüneydoğuTürki̇ye) Sel Ve Taşkınların OluşumundaBeşeri̇Faktörleri̇Etki̇si̇., 10(37), 267–292.

Svetlana, D., Radovan, D., & Ján, D. (2015). The Economic Impact of Floods and their Importance in Different Regions of the World with Emphasis on Europe. Procedia Economics and Finance, 34(15), 649–655. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2212-5671(15)01681-0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S2212-5671(15)01681-0

Talbot, C. J., Bennett, E. M., Cassell, K., Hanes, D. M., Minor, E. C., Paerl, H., Raymond, P. A., Vargas, R., Vidon, P. G., Wollheim, W., & Xenopoulos, M. A. (2018). The impact of flooding on aquatic ecosystem services. Biogeochemistry, 141(3), 439–461. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-018-0449-7 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-018-0449-7

Whitfield, P. H., Wang, J. Y., & Cannon, A. J. (2003). Modelling Future Streamflow Extremes - Floods and Low Flows in Georgia Basin, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal, 28(4), 633–656. https://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj2804633 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4296/cwrj2804633

Zaidee, W. N. A. W. F., Saudi, A. S. M., Kamarudin, M. K. A., Toriman, M. E., Juahir, H., Abu, I. F., Shafii, M. M. N. Z., Nizam, K., & Elfithri, R. (2018a). Flood risk pattern recognition using chemometric techniques approach in Golok River, Kelantan. International Journal of Engineering and Technology(UAE), 7(3.14 Special Issue 14), 75–79. https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.14.16865 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14419/ijet.v7i3.14.16865

Zakaria, M. I., Jabbar, W. A., Technology, E. E., & Computing, I. (2021). FLOOD MONITORING AND WARNING SYSTEMS : A BRIEF REVIEW 洪水監測和預警系統 : 簡要回顧. June. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35741/issn.0258-2724.56.3.12

Zeleňáková, M., Blišťan, P., Alkhalaf, I., Gaňová, L., & Zvijáková, L. (2016). Assessment of environmental damages in case of flood in Bodva River basin, Slovakia. International Journal of Safety and Security Engineering, 6(3), 498–507. https://doi.org/10.2495/SAFE-V6-N3-498-507. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2495/SAFE-V6-N3-498-507




How to Cite

Jaafar, J., Norisman, N. S., Othman, Z., & Qudus, N. (2023). Flood Risk Trend by using PCA and SPC Analysis at Muda River, Kedah. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 8(23), 39–49. https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v8i23.4501