A Threshold Analysis of Internet Users and the CO2 Emissions Nexus


  • Nur’Jila Mohammad School of Government, UUM College of Law, Government and International Studies, Universiti Utara Malaysia 06010 UUM Sintok, Kedah Malaysia
  • Nur Lina Abdullah Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Negeri Sembilan, Kampus Seremban, Persiaran Seremban Tiga/1, 70300 Seremban, Negeri Sembilan Malaysia.
  • Mohd Khairuddin Che Zonkapri Tun Ahmad Sarji School of Government and Public Services (TASSGPS) Universiti Tun Abdul Razak Bhd (UNIRAZAK), 195A, Jalan Tun Razak, 50400 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; College of Energy Economics and Social Sciences, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kampus Putrajaya, Jalan Ikram-Uniten, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia.
  • Izatul Husna Zakaria School of Technology Management and Logistics, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia.




Internet users, CO2 Emissions, Population, Threshold Regression


The study adopted threshold regression techniques to estimate the cross-section data spanning 2017 to 2021. It hypothesized that internet users affect CO2 emission between countries and this would vary depending on the level of population. Countries that have smaller populations may not have the same effect on CO2 emissions as compared to countries with larger  populations. The empirical results show that internet users exert a significant influence on CO2 emissions, especially under high threshold regimes. Thus, the larger the population, the higher and more significant will be the impact on CO2 by internet users.


Asongu, S. A. (2018). ICT, openness and CO 2 emissions in Africa. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 9351-9359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1239-4

Asongu, S., El Montasser, G., & Toumi, H. (2016). Testing the relationships between energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in 24 African countries: a panel ARDL approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 6563-6573. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5883-7

Avom, D., Nkengfack, H., Fotio, H. K., & Totouom, A. (2020). ICT and environmental quality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Effects and transmission channels. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 155, 120028. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.120028

Hansen, B. E. (2000). Sample splitting and threshold estimation. Econometrica, 68(3), 575-603. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-0262.00124

Birdsall, N. (1992). Another look at population and global warming (Vol. 1020). World Bank Publications.

Chien, F., Anwar, A., Hsu, C. C., Sharif, A., Razzaq, A., & Sinha, A. (2021). The role of information and communication technology in encountering environmental degradation: proposing an SDG framework for the BRICS countries. Technology in Society, 65, 101587. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101587

Dong, K., Hochman, G., Zhang, Y., Sun, R., Li, H., & Liao, H. (2018). CO2 emissions, economic and population growth, and renewable energy: empirical evidence across regions. Energy Economics, 75, 180-192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2018.08.017

Faisal, F., Tursoy, T., & Pervaiz, R. (2020). Does ICT lessen CO 2 emissions for fast-emerging economies? An application of the heterogeneous panel estimations. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 10778-10789. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07582-w

Global Energy Review: CO2 Emissions in 2021. (2021). Global emissions rebound sharply to highest ever level. Retrieved from https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/c3086240-732b-4f6a-89d7-db01be018f5e/GlobalEnergyReviewCO2Emissionsin2021.pdf

IEA. International Energy Agency. Global Energy Review: CO2 Emissions in 2021 Global emissions rebound sharply to highest ever level. 2021. Retrieved from https://iea.blob.core.windows.net/assets/c3086240-732b-4f6a-89d7-db01be018f5e/GlobalEnergyReviewCO2Emissionsin2021.pdf

ITU. (2021). https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Documents/facts/FactsFigures2021.pdf

Liu, Y., Xiao, H., Zikhali, P., & Lv, Y. (2014). Carbon emissions in China: a spatial econometric analysis at the regional level. Sustainability, 6(9), 6005-6023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su6096005

Rahman, M. M., Saidi, K., & Mbarek, M. B. (2020). Economic growth in South Asia: the role of CO2 emissions, population density and trade openness. Heliyon, 6(5), e03903. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03903

Shi, A. (2003). The impact of population pressure on global carbon dioxide emissions, 1975–1996: evidence from pooled cross-country data. Ecological economics, 44(1), 29-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-8009(02)00223-9

Ulucak, R., & Khan, S. U. D. (2020). Does information and communication technology affect CO2 mitigation under the pathway of sustainable development during the mode of globalization?. Sustainable Development, 28(4), 857-867. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2041

Weber, H., & Sciubba, J. D. (2019). The effect of population growth on the environment: evidence from European regions. European Journal of Population, 35, 379-402. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-018-9486-0

World Population Prospects .2022. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/sites/www.un.org.development.desa.pd/files/wpp2022_summary_of_results.pdf

Xu, B., & Lin, B. (2015). How industrialization and urbanization process impacts on CO2 emissions in China: evidence from nonparametric additive regression models. Energy Economics, 48, 188-202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2015.01.005

Zmami, M., & Ben-Salha, O. (2020). An empirical analysis of the determinants of CO2 emissions in‎ GCC countries. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 27(5), 469-480. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13504509.2020.1715508

World Population Prospects .2022. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/sites/www.un.org.development.desa.pd/files/wpp2022_summary_of_results.pdf




How to Cite

Mohammad, N., Abdullah, N. L., Che Zonkapri, M. K., & Zakaria, I. H. (2023). A Threshold Analysis of Internet Users and the CO2 Emissions Nexus. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 8(SI15), 261–267. https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v8iSI15.5085