Decent Work and Social Sustainability: A conceptual model


  • Nor Tasnim Syahera Rasak Faculty of Business & Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rizaimy Shaharudin Smart Manufacturing Research Institute (SMRI), School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Zainie Abd Hamid Faculty of Business & Management Universiti Teknologi MARA, Perlis Branch, Perlis, Malaysia



Decent Work, Sustainable Development Goals, Social Sustainability, Employment


Numerous prior researchers have utilized various variables to substantiate their findings, given the inconsistent conceptualization of decent work across various dimensions. This paper seeks to introduce a conceptual framework for examining the correlation between the pillars of decent work and social sustainability. Employing the lens of PWT, the study uncovers that the four pillars of decent work (employment creation, social protection, rights at work, and social dialogue) significantly impact social sustainability. Future research is recommended to delve into the interplay of the psychology of working, as these factors are anticipated to affect decent work.


Abbas, A., Ekowati, D., Suhariadi, F., & Hamid, S. A. R. (2022). Negative vs. Positive Psychology: a Review of Science of Well-Being. Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 1-32. DOI:

Ali, S. M., Shaharudin, M. R., & Anuar, A. (2012). The association between job positions, work experience and career satisfaction: The case of Malaysian's academic staff. Asian Social Science, 8(10), 35-44. DOI:

Allam, Z., Sharifi, A., Bibri, S. E., Jones, D. S., & Krogstie, J. (2022). The Metaverse as a Virtual Form of Smart Cities: Opportunities and Challenges for Environmental, Economic, and Social Sustainability in Urban Futures. Smart Cities, 5(3), 771-801. DOI:

Beland, D., He, A. J., & Ramesh, M. (2022). COVID-19, crisis responses, and public policies: from the persistence of inequalities to the importance of policy design. Policy and Society, 41(2), 187-198. DOI:

Blustein, D. L., Lysova, E. I., & Duffy, R. D. (2023). Understanding decent work and meaningful work. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 10, 289-314. DOI:

Cantillon, B., Seeleib‐Kaiser, M., & Van der Veen, R. (2021). The COVID‐19 crisis and policy responses by continental European welfare states. Social Policy & Administration, 55(2), 326-338. DOI:

De Stefano, V., & Doellgast, V. (2023). Introduction to the Transfer special issue. Regulating AI at work: labour relations, automation, and algorithmic management. Transfer: European Review of Labour and Research, 29(1), 9-20. DOI:

DOSM. (2019). Sustainable Development Goal. Department of Statistics Malaysia. 1-2, Series 11.

Duffy, R. D., Allan, B. A., England, J. W., Blustein, D. L., Autin, K. L., Douglass, R. P., Ferreira, J., & Santos, E. J. (2017). The development and initial validation of the Decent Work Scale. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 64(2), 206. DOI:

Duffy, R. D., Blustein, D. L., Diemer, M. A., & Autin, K. L. (2016). The psychology of working theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 63, 127-148. DOI:

Ferraro, T., Pais, L., and Dos Santos, N. R. (2015). Decent work: An aim for all made by all. International DOI:

ILO (2020). International Labour Organization (ILO) COVID-19 Monitor, 4th Edition, 27 May 2020

ILO (2015). World employment and social outlook. International Labour Organization. Retrieved from

Kaufmann, C. (2008). ILO, Declaration on Social Justice for a Fair Globalization. ILO.

Khaskheli, M. B., Wang, S., Yan, X., & He, Y. (2023). Innovation of the Social Security, Legal Risks, Sustainable Management Practices and Employee Environmental Awareness in The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor. Sustainability, 15(2), 1021. DOI:

Kolot, A., Kozmenko, S., Herasymenko, O., & Štreimikienė, D. (2020). Development of a decent work institute as a social quality imperative: Lessons for Ukraine. Economics & Sociology, 13(2), 70-85. DOI:

Krämer, C., & S. Cazes (2022). Shaping the transition: Artificial intelligence and social dialogue. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers, No. 279, OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI:

Lerche, J. (2012). Labour Regulations and Labour Standards in India: Decent Work?" Global. Retrieved from: DOI:

Levin, A., & Puckett, C. (2022). Labor Law Reform at a Critical Juncture: The Case for the Protecting the Right to Organize Act. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 59, 1.

MacNaughton, G., & Frey, D. F. (2011). Decent work for all: a holistic human rights approach. American University International Law Review., 26(2), 441-483.

Mantouvalou, V. (2022). Welfare-to-Work, zero-hours contracts and human rights. European Labour Law Journal, 20319525221104168. DOI:

Navajas-Romero, V., Díaz-Carrión, R., & Ariza-Montes, A. (2019). Decent work as determinant of work engagement on dependent self-employed. Sustainability, 11(9), DOI:

Parreira do Amaral, M., & Tikkanen, J. (2022). Governing the Life Course through Lifelong Learning: A Multilevel and Multidimensional View. Societies, 12(3), 84. DOI:

Pereira, S., Dos Santos, N. and Pais, L., 2019. Empirical Research on Decent Work: A Literature Review. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 4(1), 4. DOI:

Pfajfar, G., Shoham, A., Małecka, A., & Zalaznik, M. (2022). Value of corporate social responsibility for multiple stakeholders and social impact–Relationship marketing perspective. Journal of Business Research, 143, 46-61. DOI:

Reddy, A. A., Mittal, S., Singha Roy, N., & Kanjilal-Bhaduri, S. (2021). Time allocation between paid and unpaid work among men and women: an empirical study of Indian villages. Sustainability, 13(5), 2671. DOI:

Riguer, M. (2008). Decent work status report: The Philippines (ILS Discussion Paper Series 2008).

Roessler, R. T., & Sumner, G. (1997). Employer opinions about accommodating employees with chronic illnesses. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling,28(3), 29-34. DOI:

Rothstein Roessler, R.T.; Hawley, C.E.; McMahon, B.T. (2012). Employment Discrimination Experiences of Youth with Epilepsy: A Comparative Analysis. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 36, 149–158. DOI:

Runtunuwu, Y. B., & Tjahyadi, I. (2023). Promoting Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: Challenges and Opportunities in International Human Rights Law. The Easta Journal Law and Human Rights, 1(03), 158-165. DOI:

Russell, C. L. (2005). An Overview of the Integrative Research Review. Progress in Transplantation, 15(1), 8-13 DOI:

Santos, E. (2023). From Neglect to Progress: Assessing Social Sustainability and Decent Work in the Tourism Sector. Sustainability, 15, 10329. DOI:

Shaharudin, M.R., Hamid, N. Z. A., Abdullah, D., Ahmad, N., Hassam, S. F., & Fauzi, N. H. H. A. (2022). Factors Affecting Social Sustainability Performance amongst Malaysian Manufacturing Companies. International Journal of Business and Society, 23(3), 1874-1887. DOI:

Shaharudin, M. R., Mohamad Mokhtar, A. R., Wararatchai, P., & Legino, R. (2022). Circular Supply Chain Management and Circular Economy: A Conceptual Model. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 7(SI7), 31–37. DOI:

Sheehy, B., & Farneti, F. (2021). Corporate social responsibility, sustainability, sustainable development and corporate sustainability: What is the difference, and does it matter? Sustainability, 13(11), 5965. DOI:

Shekarian, E., Ijadi, B., Zare, A., & Majava, J. (2022). Sustainable Supply Chain Management: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Industrial Practices. Sustainability, 14(13), 7892. DOI:

Singh, S., Jain, S., & Parashar, S. (2022). The Impact on the Psychological Health of Employees through Egotism of Managers Resorting to Workplace Bullying and Destructive Leadership-a Hypothetical Case Study Approach. ECS Transactions, 107(1), 13139. DOI:

Stuart, F., Pautz, H., & Wright, S. (2016). Decent Work for Scotland's Low-Paid Workers: A job to be done. University of the West of Scotland Warwick Institute for Employment Research. DOI:10.21201/2016.619740. 66. DOI:

Snyder, H. (2019). Literature Review as a Research Methodology: An Overview and Guidelines. Journal of Business Research. DOI:

Tessier, L., De Wulf, N., & Momose, Y. (2022). Long‐term care in the context of population ageing: What role for social protection policies? International Social Security Review, 75(3-4), 19-45. DOI:

Torraco, R. J. (2005). Writing integrative literature reviews: Guidelines and examples. Human Resource Development Review, 4(3), 356-367. DOI:

Zammitti, A., Magnano, P., & Santisi, G. (2021). The concepts of work and decent work in relationship with self-efficacy and career adaptability: Research with quantitative and qualitative methods in adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 660721. DOI:

Zimmer, R. (2022). Lessons of the Indonesian Freedom of Association Protocol. In Teipen et al. (ed.), Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Value Chains, Chapter 0, pp. 467-483, Springer. DOI:




How to Cite

Rasak, N. T. S., Shaharudin, M. R., & Abd Hamid, N. Z. (2023). Decent Work and Social Sustainability: A conceptual model . Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 8(SI16), 235–240.