Impacts of Courtyard Geometrical Configurations on Energy Performance of Buildings
Keywords:courtyard, thermal performance, energy consumption, simulation
The courtyard is an architectural design element often regarded as microclimate modifiers. It has the potential of improving comfort conditions within the outdoor courtyard space and the enclosing indoor spaces. Harnessing the optimum benefits of courtyards depends on several conditions namely the orientation and configurations of the courtyards, as well as the treatment of the external surfaces of the enclosing building envelopes. As three variables of orientation, number of floors and wall envelope have not been investigated in a single study, therefore, this parametric study was performed to investigate the microclimatic influence of varying courtyard geometric configurations and its enclosing facades in hot and humid climate using IES<VE> simulation tools. The study observed the environmental impact regarding thermal performance and energy consumption of the enclosing indoor spaces. The results suggest optimum conditions to harness the potential of courtyards to lower energy consumption of buildings in the tropics.
Keywords: courtyard; thermal performance; energy consumption; simulation
eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Acosta, I., Navarro, J., & Sendra, J. J. (2013). Predictive method of the sky component in a courtyard under overcast sky conditions. Solar Energy, 89(0), 89-99. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.12.009
Al-Dawoud, A.-S. (2006). Comparative analysis of energy performance between courtyard and atrium in buildings. (3254349 Ph.D.), Illinois Institute of Technology, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/305333441?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full-Text database.
Al-Hemiddi, N. A., & Megren Al-Saud, K. A. (2001). The effect of a ventilated interior courtyard on the thermal performance of a house in a hot-arid region. Renewable Energy, 24(3-4), 581-595.
Al-Masri, N., & Abu-Hijleh, B. (2012). Courtyard housing in midrise buildings: An environmental assessment in hot-arid climate. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(4), 1892-1898. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.01.008
Al-Mumin, A. A. (2001). Suitability of sunken courtyards in the desert climate of Kuwait. Energy and Buildings, 33(2), 103-111.
Aldawoud, A. (2008). Thermal performance of courtyard buildings. Energy and Buildings, 40(5), 906-910.
Aldawoud, A., & Clark, R. (2008). Comparative analysis of energy performance between courtyard and atrium in buildings. Energy and Buildings, 40(3), 209-214.
Almhafdy, A., Ibrahim, N., Ahmad, S. S., & Yahya, J. (2013). Courtyard Design Variants and Microclimate Performance. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 101(0), 170-180. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.07.190
Architecture, O. (2014). courtyard. Retrieved from http://www.ontarioarchitecture.com/courtyard.html
Askar, H., Probert, S. D., & Batty, W. J. (2001). Windows for buildings in hot, arid countries. Applied Energy, 70(1), 77-101. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-2619(01)00009-5
Bagneid, A. (2006). The creation of a courtyard microclimate thermal model for the analysis of courtyard houses. University Microfilms International, P. O. Box 1764, Ann Arbor, MI, 48106, USA,
Berkovic, S., Yezioro, A., & Bitan, A. (2012). Study of thermal comfort in courtyards in a hot, arid climate. Solar Energy, 86(5), 1173-1186. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2012.01.010
Buratti, C., & Moretti, E. (2012). Glazing systems with silica aerogel for energy savings in buildings. Applied Energy, 98(0), 396-403. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.03.062
Edwards, B., Sibley, M., Hakmi, M., & Land, p. (2006). Courtyard housing: past, present, and future: Spon Press.
Ettouney, S. M., & Fricke, F. R. (1973). Courtyard acoustics. Applied Acoustics, 6(2), 119-132. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-682X(73)90021-2
Flinck, D. (2004). Come to the courtyard: Protocols of praising God in the postmodern world. (3124339 D.Min.), Drew University, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/305178528?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full-Text database.
Hammad, R. N. S., & Gibbs, B. M. (1983). The acoustic performance of building façades in hot climates: Part 1--Courtyards. Applied Acoustics, 16(2), 121-137.
History, B. A. a. (2014). courtyard. Retrieved from http://www.buffaloah.com/a/DCTNRY/p/peri.html
J. Rodríguez-Algeciras, A. Tablada, M. Chaos-Years, G.D.l. Paz, A. Matzarakis. (2018). Influence of aspect ratio and orientation on large courtyard thermal conditions in the historical center of Camagüey-Cuba, Renew. Energy 125 (2018) 840–856 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.01.082.
Jamaludin, Adi Ainurzaman; Hussein, Hazreena; MD. Tahir, Kauthar. (2018). Satisfaction of Residents Towards Internal Courtyard Buildings.Journal of Design and Built Environment, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 2, p. 61-69, Dec. 2018. ISSN 2232-1500.
Kim, M.-J., Yang, H.-S., & Kang, J. (2014). A case study on controlling sound fields in a courtyard by landscape designs. Landscape and Urban Planning, 123(0), 10-20. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.12.001
Krüger, E., Pearlmutter, D., & Rasia, F. (2010). Evaluating the impact of canyon geometry and orientation on cooling loads in a high-mass building in a hot dry environment. Applied Energy, 87(6), 2068-2078. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.11.034
Lau, S. S., & Yang, F. (2009). Introducing healing gardens into a compact university campus: design natural space to create healthy and sustainable campuses. Landscape Research, 34(1), 55-81.
Lewcock, R. (1986). The old walled city of Sana'a. Ghent: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.
Li, T.-t. (2010, 26-28 June 2010). Study of the original ecology design in the courtyard of traditional dwellings in MeiZhou. Paper presented at the Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), 2010 International Conference on.
Meir, I. A., Pearlmutter, D., & Etzion, Y. (1995). On the microclimatic behavior of two semi-enclosed attached courtyards in a hot dry region. Building and Environment, 30(4), 563-572.
Muhaisen, A. S. (2006). Shading simulation of the courtyard form in different climatic regions. Building and Environment, 41(12), 1731-1741.
Muhaisen, A. S., & B Gadi, M. (2006). Shading performance of polygonal courtyard forms. Building and Environment, 41(8), 1050-1059.
Muhaisen, A. S., & Gadi, M. B. (2006). Effect of courtyard proportions on solar heat gain and energy requirement in the temperate climate of Rome. Building and Environment, 41(3), 245-253.
Ochoa, C. E., Aries, M. B. C., van Loenen, E. J., & Hensen, J. L. M. (2012). Considerations on design optimization criteria for windows providing low energy consumption and high visual comfort. Applied Energy, 95(0), 238-245. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.02.042
Oldham, D. J., & Mohsen, E. A. (1979). A model investigation of the acoustical performance of courtyard houses with respect to noise from road traffic. Applied Acoustics, 12(3), 215-230. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0003-682X(79)90024-0
Ozel, M. (2011). Effect of wall orientation on the optimum insulation thickness by using a dynamic method. Applied Energy, 88(7), 2429-2435. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.01.049
Rajapaksha, I., Nagai, H., & Okumiya, M. (2003). A ventilated courtyard as a passive cooling strategy in the warm humid tropics. Renewable Energy, 28(11), 1755-1778.
Reynolds, J. (2002). Courtyards: aesthetic, social, and thermal delight: Wiley.
Sadafi, N., Salleh, E., Haw, L. C., & Jaafar, Z. (2011). Evaluating thermal effects of internal courtyard in a tropical terrace house by computational simulation. Energy and Buildings, 43(4), 887-893. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2010.12.009
Saeed, T. A. (2007). Studies on the geometrical properties of courtyard house form considering natural ventilation in hot-dry regions. (3492493 Ph.D.), Illinois Institute of Technology, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/917951474?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full-Text database.
Safarzadeh, H., & Bahadori, M. N. (2005). Passive cooling effects of courtyards. Building and Environment, 40(1), 89-104.
Shanthi Priya, R., Sundarraja, M. C., & Radhakrishnan, S. (2012). Experimental study on the thermal performance of a traditional house with one-sided wind catcher during summer and winter. Energy Efficiency, 5(4), 483-496. doi:10.1007/s12053-012-9155-9
Tablada, A., Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J., De Troyer, F., & Verschure, H. (2005). The influence of courtyard geometry on air flow and thermal comfort: CFD and thermal comfort simulations.
Tablada, A., De Troyer, F., Blocken, B., Carmeliet, J., & Verschure, H. (2009). On natural ventilation and thermal comfort in compact urban environments - the Old Havana case. Building and Environment, 44(9), 1943-1958.
Toone, T. (2008). Effect of healing garden use on stress experienced by parents of patients in a pediatric hospital. Texas A&M University,
Wang, F., & Liu, Y. (2002). Thermal environment of the courtyard style cave dwelling in winter. Energy and Buildings, 34(10), 985-1001.
Wang, L., Yang, Z., & Yang, L. (2011, 22-24 April 2011). The research on environmental facility of traditional Residence based on modern residence pattern —Takes the Dali courtyard traditional folk house as an example. Paper presented at the Electric Technology and Civil Engineering (ICETCE), 2011 International Conference on.
Wang, Y. (2006). Investigating the application of Chinese classical garden design principles to the revitalization of courtyard houses in Beijing. (MR20550 M.Arch.), Dalhousie University (Canada), Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/304952171?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Full-Text database.
Yang, X., Li, Y., & Yang, L. (2012). Predicting and understanding temporal 3D exterior surface temperature distribution in an ideal courtyard. Building and Environment, 57(0), 38-48. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.buildenv.2012.03.022
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.