Effect of Contrast Polarity Towards Eye Fixation Rates When Reading On Smartphone


  • Ahmad Mursyid Ahmad Rudin Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia
  • Nur Hasnierah Abd Rahman Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia
  • Saiful Azlan Rosli Optometry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Selangor, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Asrullah Centre for Health Policy and Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia




Contrast Polarity, Fixation Rates, Eye Tracking, Light conditions


This study is conducted to investigate the effect of contrast polarity towards eye fixation patterns when reading text on a smartphone in bright and dark conditions involving the effects when reading on a smartphone such as in real-life situations. The number of fixations and duration of fixation showed no statistically significant difference (p=0.160 and 0.099 respectively). However, emmetropic subjects showed a higher result in bright conditions compared to myopic subjects (p=0.046). This concludes that emmetropic eye movement efficiency seems superior, possibly due to lower spherical order aberration as pupil size decreases in bright illumination.


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How to Cite

Ahmad Rudin, A. M., Abd Rahman, N. H., Rosli, S. A., & Asrullah, M. . (2023). Effect of Contrast Polarity Towards Eye Fixation Rates When Reading On Smartphone. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 8(24), 347–353. https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v8i24.4680