Increasing Tourism in Karo District, Indonesia Based on Place Identity


  • Nurlisa Ginting University of Sumatera Utara
  • N. Vinky Rahman University of Sumatera Utara
  • Achmad Delianur Nasution University of Sumatera Utara



Place identity is one of the necessary aspects to increase tourism. It can also improve someone’s quality of life. This study aimed to find place identity on tourism development in Karo District, Indonesia, which can be used to create a tourism development program. This research used mix method by identified four elements: distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. The result shows that the strongest element of place identity was self-esteem and distinctiveness, while self-efficacy and continuity were weak. Furthermore, tourism in the area relatively goes well even though place identity elements were weak. However, the improvement to enhancing tourism is needed.         

Keywords: Tourism Development;  Place Identity; Karo District

ISSN: 2398-4287© 2017. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, UniversitiTeknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Amir, A. F., Ismail, M. N. I., & See, T. P. (2015). Sustainable Tourist Environment: Perception of International Women Travelers on Safety and Security in Kuala Lumpur. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, 123-133.

Amir, S., Osman, M. M., Bachok, S., & Ibrahim, M. (2016). Local economic benefit in shopping and transportation: a study on tourists’ expenditure in Melaka, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222, 374-381.

Bankone, Emmanuel Tamitope & Ajagun, Olufunmi Victoria (2014). Psychological Contract and Organizational Based Self Esteem as Antecedents of Organizational Commitment among Government Workers in Ekiti State, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, 1, 24-33

Bazneshin, S. D., Hosseini, S. B., & Azeri, A. R. K. (2015). The Physical Variables of Tourist Areas to Increase the Tourists’ Satisfaction Regarding the Sustainable Tourism Criteria: Case Study of Rudsar Villages, Sefidab in Rahim Abad. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201, 128-135.

Berman, R. W. (2006). Assesing Urban Design: Historical Ambience on The Waterfront. UK: Lexington Books.

Breakwell, G. M. (1993). Identity Process Theory: Identity, Social Action and Social Change.Cambridge University Press.

Cheshmehzangi, A., & Heat, T. (2012). Urban identities: Influences on socio-environmental values and spatial inter-relations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 253-264.

Chin, C.-H , Hussain, K., Kahl, C., Poulain, J. P., Ragavan, N. A., Nair, V. (2014). Rural Tourism Destination Competitiveness: A Study on Annah Rais Longhouse Homestay, Sarawak. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 35-44.

Dupeyras, A., & MacCallum, N. (2013). Indicators for Measuring Competitiveness in Tourism: OECD Publishing.

Ginting, N. (2016). How Self-efficacy Enhance Heritage Tourism in Medan Historical Corridor, Indonesia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234, 193-200.

Ginting, N., & Rahman, N. V. (2016). Maimoon Palace Heritage District in Medan, Indonesia: What We Preserve and Why We Preserve?. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 222, 332-341.

Ginting, N., Rahman, N. V., Nasution, A. D., (2016). More Attractive More Identified : Distinictiveness in Embedding Place Identity. Proceeding IEREK International Conference on Green Urbanism.

Ginting, N., & Wahid, J. (2015). Exploring Identity's Aspect of Continuity of Urban Heritage Tourism. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 202, 234-241.

Harun, N. Z., Zakariya, K., Mansor, M., & Zakaria, K. (2014). Determining attributes of urban plaza for social sustainability. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 606-615.

Hussain, K. A. M., & Ujang, N. (2014). Visitors’ identification of landmarks in the historic district of Banda Hilir, Melaka, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 689-699.

Ja’afar, N.H., Sulaiman, A.B., Shamsuddin, S. (2012). The contribution of landscape features on traditional streets in Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 50, 643-656.

Kastenholz, E., Eusébio, C., & Carneiro, M. J. (2016). Purchase of local products within the rural tourist experience context. Tourism Economics, 22(4), 729-748.

Lalli, Marco. (1992). Urban-Related Identity: Theory, Measurement, And Empirical Findings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 12, 285-303

Lynch,K.(1960). The Image of the City, Cambridge, The MIT Press.

Marpaung, B. O. (2016). Communication Strategy Planning of Fisherman Kampung Medan Belawan as a Tourist Destination. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234, 344-352.

Movahed, S., Azad, S. P., &Zakeri, H. (2012). A Safe Pedestrian Walkway; Creation a Safe Public Space Based on Pedestrian Safety. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 35, 572-585.

Sadat, M. M., & Chang, L. H. (2016). The Impact of Environmental Quality of Revisiting Intention. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism,17(2), 209-223.

Samsudin, P. Y., & Maliki, N. Z. (2015). Preserving Cultural Landscape in Homestay Programme Towards Sustainable Tourism: Brief Critical Review Concept. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 433-441.

Shabak, M., Norouzi, N., Abdullah, A. M., & Khan, T. H. (2015). Children's Sense of Attachment to the Residential Common Open Space. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201, 39-48.

Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research.Tourism Management, 42, 37-49.

Snider, A., Luo, S., Hill, J., & Herstine, J. (2015). Perceptions of availability of beach parking and access as predictors of coastal tourism. Ocean & Coastal Management, 105, 48-55.

Twigger-Ross, C. L., & Uzzell, D. L. (1996). Place and identity processes.Journal of environmental psychology, 16(3), 205-220.

Twigger-Ross, CL, Bonaiuto M Breawell. G. M (2003). Identity Theories and enviromental Psychology. In, M. Bonnes. T. Lee & Enviromental Issues ( pp 203-234). Aldershot, UK, Ashgate Publishing.

Ujang, N., & Zakariya, K. (2015). Place Attachment and the Value of Place in the Life of the Users. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, 373-380.

Ujang, N. (2012). Place attachment and continuity of urban place identity.Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 49, 156-167.

Wang, S. (2016). Roles of place identity distinctiveness and continuity on resident attitude toward tourism. European Journal of Tourism Research, 13, 58.

Wang, S., & Xu, H. (2015). Influence of place-based senses of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem and self-efficacy on residents' attitudes toward tourism.Tourism Management, 47, 241-250.

Zakariya, K. Harun, N. Z., and Mansor, M. (2015). Place Meaning of the Historic Square as Tourism Attraction and Community Leisure Space. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,202, 477 – 486

Zakaria, J., & Ujang, N. (2015). Comfort of walking in the city center of Kuala Lumpur. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 642-652.



How to Cite

Ginting, N., Rahman, N. V., & Nasution, A. D. (2017). Increasing Tourism in Karo District, Indonesia Based on Place Identity. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2(5), 177-184.

Most read articles by the same author(s)