Cognitive Impairment among Young Motorcyclists: A controlled study


  • Anila Ali University Technology Mara
  • Roslinah Mohamad Hussain Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia



Motorcycle noise, Motorcyclists, Neuropsychological assessment, Reaction-time.


The cognitive assessment of young motorcyclists under high-noise exposure has not been investigated previously. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effects of noise-induced cognitive function and reaction time among undergraduate motorcyclists (aged: 19-25). The study design consisted of experimental (ExG; n=30) and controlled group (CoG; n=30). The ExG performed neuropsychological battery test under motorcycle noise (85-90 dBA) and CoG under controlled laboratory noise (<65 dBA). The result revealed that the CoG had significantly better cognitive performance (p < 0.05) and reaction-time as compared to ExG. The results demonstrated the significant effect of motorcycle noise on decreased cognitive performance and increased reaction time.

Author Biography

Anila Ali, University Technology Mara

PhD Scholar


Alghadir, A. H., Gabr, S. A., & Al-eisa, E. S. (2016). Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults. OxidativeMedicine and Cellular Longevity, 1–8.

Ali, A., Dom, N. C., Hussain, R. M., & Abdullah, M. (2017). A QoL2017Kuching Effect of Motorcycling on Salivary Noise-Induced Cortisol among Young Motorcyclists. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2(6), 269–277.

Ali, A., Dom, N. C., Hussain, R. M., Karuppannan, S., & Abdullah, M. (2018). Auditory Profile of Undergraduate University Motorcyclists : Prevalence of Hearing Loss and Hearing Impairment. EnvironmentAsia, 11, 217–229.

Ali, A., Karuppannan, S., Hussain, R. M., Rajan, S., Abdullah, M., Ikhwan, R., & Chinna, K. (2016). Epidemiological root cause analysis of noise and physio ‐ psycho impacts related to motorcycle road accidents. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 3(5), 150–156.

Alimohammadi, I., Soltani, R., Sandrock, S., Azkhosh, M., & Gohari, M. R. (2013). The effects of road traffic noise on mental performance. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 1–5.

Basner, M., Babisch, W., Davis, A., Brink, M., Clark, C., Janssen, S., & Stansfeld, S. (2013). Auditory and non-auditory eff ects of noise on health. Lancet, 6736(13), 1–8.

Cooke, D. M., Mckenna, K., Fleming, J., & Darnell, R. (2006). Construct and ecological validity of the Occupational Therapy Adult Perceptual Screening Test ( OT-APST ). Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 13(January 2005), 49–61.

Etkin, A., & Wager, T. D. (2007). Reviews and Overviews Functional Neuroimaging of Anxiety : A Meta-Analysis of Emotional Processing in PTSD , Social Anxiety Disorder , and Specific Phobia. Am J Psychiatry, (October), 1476–1488.

Helton, W. S., Matthews, G., & Warm, J. S. (2009). Stress state mediation between environmental variables and performance : The case of noise and vigilance. Acta Psychologica, 130(3), 204–213.

Itzkovich, Malka, Elazar, B., & Averbuch, S. Loewenstein occupational therapy cognitive assessment (LOTCA) manual (2000). Maddak Incorporated.

Jahncke, H., Hygge, S., Halin, N., Marie, A., & Dimberg, K. (2011). Open-plan of fi ce noise : Cognitive performance and restoration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(4), 373–382.

Jang, Y., Chern, J., & Lin, K. (2009). Validity of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment in People With Intellectual Disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63(4), 414–422.

Jordan, C., Hetherington, O., Woodside, A., & Harvey, H. (2004). Noise induced hearing loss in occupational motorcyclists. Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3(2), 70–77.

Katz, N., Elazar, B., & Itzkovich, M. (1995). Construct validity of a geriatric version of the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA) battery. Physical Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 13(3), 31–47.

León-Domíngueza, U. I. S.-M., Barrio-Álvarezc, E., Martínd, J. M. B. y, & León-Carrióne, J. (2016). Applied Neuropsychology : Adult Safe Driving and Executive Functions in Healthy. APPLIED NEUROPSYCHOLOGY: ADULT, 9095(May).

Liebl, A., & Jahncke, H. (2017). Review of research on the effects of noise on cognitive performance 2014-2017. In 12th ICBEN Congress on Noise as a Public Health Problem.

Masuri, M. G., Dahlan, A., Danis, A., & Isa, K. A. (2017). Attitude towards Safe Driving Scale ( ASDS-46 ) as a Future Predictor in Determining a Young Adult Quality Of Life : Part II. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2(5), 363.

Mehri, A., Alimohammadi, I., Ebrahimi, H., Hajizadeh, R., & Roudbari, M. (2018). Effect of traffic noise on mental performance with regard to introversion and task complexity. Applied Acoustics, 132(November 2017), 118–123.

Norfazila, D., Mustaffa, A., & Ghazali, M. (2017). Speeding Intention among Young Urban Drivers. Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies, AjBeS, 2(7), 43–51.

Parsons, K. C. (2000). Environmental ergonomics : a review of principles , methods and models. Applied Ergonomics, 31, 581–594.

Rojo-mota, G., Pedrero-pérez, E. J., León, J. M. R. De, León-frade, I., Aldea-poyo, P., Alonso-rodríguez, M., … Morales-alonso, S. (2017). Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment to Evaluate People with Addictions. Occupational Therapy International, 2017, 1–7.

Trimmel, M., Atzlsdorfer, J., Tupy, N., & Trimmel, K. (2012). Effects of low intensity noise from aircraft or from neighbourhood on cognitive learning and electrophysiological stress responses. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 215(6), 547–554.

Tzivian, L., Winkler, A., Dlugaj, M., Schikowski, T., Vossoughi, M., Fuks, K., … Hoffmann, B. (2015). Effects of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 218(1), 1–11.

UYANIK, M., AKI, E., GER, T. D., GONCA BUMIN, & KAYIHAN, H. (1999). Cognition in 4 ± 11 year old children in Turkey. PEDIATRIC REHABILITATION, 3(3).

Warren, M., Pendleton, H.M. and Schultz-Krohn, W. (2006). Evaluation and treatment of visual deficits following brain injury. Occupational Therapy: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction, 532–572.

Waye, K. P., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P., & Clow, A. (2002). Low frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance. Life Sciences, 70, 745–758.



How to Cite

Ali, A., & Mohamad Hussain, R. (2018). Cognitive Impairment among Young Motorcyclists: A controlled study. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 3(7), 321-329.