Effect of Motorcycling on Salivary Noise-Induced Cortisol among Young Motorcyclists
Keywords:Noise, Salivary cortisol, Noise sensitivity, motorcycle, ELISA
Saliva cortisol response was investigated from the motorcycling exposure for approximately 50 minutes between low and high noise-sensitive (Weinstein Noise Sensitivity Scale) young riders (19-25 years). The results showed significant difference (p < 0.05) in salivary cortisol concentrations in High-Noise Sensitive group (n = 27). Significant gender differences were found (p < 0.05) among the Low-Noise sensitive group (n = 30), after ride. Cross-analysis between groups was significant (p < 0.05) for before ride cortisol levels of Low-Noise sensitive group. This study suggests that subjective noise sensitivity plays a vital role in increased cortisol level among noise sensitive riders.
Ali, A., Karuppannan, S., Hussain, R. M., Rajan, S., Abdullah, M., Ikhwan, R., & Chinna, K. (2016). Epidemiological root cause analysis of noise and physio ‐ psycho impacts related to motorcycle road accidents. Journal of Scientific Research and Development, 3(5), 150–156.
Bigert, C., Bluhm, G., & Theorell, T. (2005). Saliva cortisol – a new approach in noise research to study stress effects. Int. J. Hyg. Environ.-Health, 208, 227–230.
Black, D. a., Black, J. a., Issarayangyun, T., & Samuels, S. E. (2007). Aircraft noise exposure and resident’s stress and hypertension: A public health perspective for airport environmental management. Journal of Air Transport Management, 13, 264–276.
Chris Jordan, Oliver Hetherington, Alan Woodside, H. H. (2004). Noise induced hearing loss in occupational motorcyclists. Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3.
Chung, A. W. L., To, W. M., Lai, T. M., & Choy, Y. S. (2014). Characterizing noise sensitivity of inhabitants of cities. In 11th International Congress on Noise as aPublic Health Problem (pp. 1–8). Nara. Japan: ICBEN.
Elbüken, G., Köse, K., Karaca, Z., Tanrıverdi, F., Ünlühizarcı, K., Zararsız, G., & Keleştimur, F. (2014). Comparison of Electrochemiluminescence and Enzyme Immunoassay Methods for the Measurement of Salivary Cortisol Tükrük Kortizolü Ölçümünde Elektrokemilüminesan ve Enzimimmünoassay Yöntemlerinin Karşılaştırılması, (15), 111–115.
Ellermeier, W., Eigenstetter, M., & Zimmer, K. (2001). Psychoacoustic correlates of individual noise sensitivity. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 109(4), 1464–1473.
Evans, G. W., Lercher, P., Meis, M., Ising, H., & Kofler, W. W. (2001). Community noise exposure and stress in children. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 109(3), 1023–1027.
Fyhri, A., & Klæboe, R. (2009). Road traffic noise, sensitivity, annoyance and self-reported health-A structural equation model exercise. Environment International, 35(1), 91–97.
Gunnar, M., & Quevedo, K. (2007). The Neurobiology of Stress and Development. The Annual Review of Psychology. Hill, E. M. (2012). Noise Sensitivity and Diminished Health : The Role of Stress-Related Factors. Doctoral Dissertation, Auckland University of Technology, (August).
Job, R. F., Hatfield, J., Carter, N. L., Peploe, P., Taylor, R., & Morrell, S. (2001). General scales of community reaction to noise (dissatisfaction and perceived affectedness) are more reliable than scales of annoyance. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 110(2), 939–946.
Job, R. F. S. (1999). Noise sensitivity as a factor influencing human reaction to noise. Noise & Health, 1, 57–68.
Jordan, C., Hetherington, O., Woodside, A., & Harvey, H. (2004). Noise induced hearing loss in occupational motorcyclists. Journal of Environmental Health Research, 3(2), 70–77.
Kishikawa, H., Matsui, T., Uchiyama, I., Miyakawa, M., Hiramatsu, K., & Stansfeld, S. a. (2006). The development of Weinstein’s noise sensitivity scale. Noise & Health, 8(33), 154–160.
Kristenson, M., Garvin, P., & Lundberg, U. (2011). Psychosocial Work Stressors and Salivary The Role of Saliva Cortisol Measurement in Health and Disease Edited By. Bentham Science Publishers, 3–16.
Lefèvre, M., Carlier, M., Champelovier, P., Lambert, J., Laumon, B., Evrard, A., … Bernard, U. C. (2017). Effects of aircraft noise exposure on saliva cortisol near airports in France. Occup Environ Med, 1–8.
Ljungberg, J., & Neely, G. (2007). Stress, subjective experience and cognitive performance during exposure to noise and vibration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 27, 44–54.
Lupien, S. J., Fiocco, A., Wan, N., Maheu, F., Lord, C., Schramek, T., & Tu, M. T. (2005). Stress hormones and human memory function across the lifespan. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 225–242.
Marques, A. H., Silverman, M. N., & Sternberg, E. M. (2010). Evaluation of Stress Systems by Applying Noninvasive Methodologies : Measurements of Neuroimmune Biomarkers in the Sweat , Heart Rate Variability and Salivary Cortisol. NeuroImmunoModulation, 17, 205–208.
Masuri, M. G., Dahlan, A., Danis, A., & Isa, K. A. (2017). Attitude towards Safe Driving Scale ( ASDS-46 ) as a Future Predictor in Determining a Young Adult Quality Of Life : Part II. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 2(5), 363.
Masuri, M. G., Isa, K. A. M., & Tahir, M. P. M. (2012). Children, Youth and Road Environment: Road Traffic Accident. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38(December 2010), 213–218.
McCombe, A. W. (2003). Hearing loss in motorcyclists: occupational and medicolegal aspects. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(1), 7–9.
Norfazila, D., Mustaffa, A., & Ghazali, M. (2017). Speeding Intention among Young Urban Drivers. Asian Journal of Behavioural Studies, AjBeS, 2(7), 43–51.
Oiamo, T. H., Luginaah, I. N., & Baxter, J. (2015). Cumulative effects of noise and odour annoyances on environmental and health related quality of life. Social Science & Medicine, 146, 191–203.
Repetti, R. L., Robles, T. F., & Reynolds, B. (2011). Allostatic processes in the family. Development and Psychopathology, 23, 921–938.
Ross, B. C. (1989). Short Communication: NOISE EXPOSURE OF MOTORCYCLISTS. Annual Occupational Hygiene, 33(l), 123–127.
Saiyudthong, S., Suwannarat, P., Trongwongsa, T., & Srisurapanon, S. (2010). Comparison between ECL and ELISA for the detection of salivary Cortisol and determination of the relationship between Cortisol in saliva and serum measured by ECL. ScienceAsia, 36, 169–171.
Salimetrics. (2014). High Sensitivity salivary cortisol. Retrieved from https://www.salimetrics.com/assets/documents/1-3002.pdf
Shepherd, D., Welch, D., Dirks, K. N., & Mathews, R. (2010). Exploring the Relationship between Noise Sensitivity, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Adults Exposed to Environmental Noise. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7, 3579–3594.
Shirtcliff, E. A., Buck, R. L., Laughlin, M. J., Hart, T., Cole, C. R., & Slowey, P. D. (2015). Salivary Cortisol Results Obtainable Within Minutes of Sample Collection Correspond With Traditional Immunoassays. Clinical Therapeutics, 37(3), 505–514.
Stansfeld S A and Matheson M P. (2003). Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health. British Medical Bulletin, 68(1), 243–257.
Stokholm, Z. A., Hansen, A. M., Grynderup, M. B., Peter, J., Lodberg, K., Winther, T., Kolstad, H. A. (2014). ScienceDirect Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 39, 21–32.
Sylvie Hebert, & Lupien, S. J. (2009). Salivary cortisol levels, subjective stress, and tinnitus intensity in tinnitus sufferers during noise exposure in the laboratory. Int. J. Hyg. Environ.-Health, 212, 37–44.
Wagner, J., Cik, M., Marth, E., Santner, B. I., Gallasch, E., Lackner, A., & Raggam, R. B. (2010). Feasibility of testing three salivary stress biomarkers in relation to naturalistic traffic noise exposure. International Jl of Hygiene and Environ Health, 213(2), 153–155.
Waye, K. P., Bengtsson, J., Rylander, R., Hucklebridge, F., Evans, P., & Clow, A. (2002). Low-frequency noise enhances cortisol among noise sensitive subjects during work performance. Life Sciences, 70, 745–758.
Weinstein, N. D. (1978). Individual differences in reactions to noise: a longitudinal study in a college dormitory. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 63(4), 458–466.
World Health Organization. (2011). Burden of disease from environmental noise. Copenhagen.
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.