Digital Board Game Using the Theory of Variation to Enhance Grammar Learning


  • Tengku Nazatul Shima Tengku Paris UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA
  • Maimunah Abdul Kadir International Islamic University



Grammar, The Theory of Variation, Interactive, Digital learners


The study is on the use of Throw Back Time (TBT), an interactive digital board game aimed at teaching grammar tenses and aspect. The game exclusively designed according to the Theory of Variation (Marton & Booth, 1997). Four patterns of variation including contrast, separation, generalization, and fusion were used. The study employed a qualitative content analysis in illuminating the principles of the Theory of Variation (ToV) in the design of the grammar exercises in the game. Hence, the study suggests that the elements in the (ToV) governing the tasks in the game delivers positive outcomes to help learners learning grammar.

Keywords: Grammar; The Theory of Variation; Interactive; Digital learners

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Author Biography

Tengku Nazatul Shima Tengku Paris, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA



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How to Cite

Tengku Paris, T. N. S., & Abdul Kadir, M. (2019). Digital Board Game Using the Theory of Variation to Enhance Grammar Learning. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 4(12), 67–74.