Digital Board Game Using the Theory of Variation to Enhance Grammar Learning
Keywords:Grammar, The Theory of Variation, Interactive, Digital learners
AbstractThe study is on the use of Throw Back Time (TBT), an interactive digital board game aimed at teaching grammar tenses and aspect. The game exclusively designed according to the Theory of Variation (Marton & Booth, 1997). Four patterns of variation including contrast, separation, generalization, and fusion were used. The study employed a qualitative content analysis in illuminating the principles of the Theory of Variation (ToV) in the design of the grammar exercises in the game. Hence, the study suggests that the elements in the (ToV) governing the tasks in the game delivers positive outcomes to help learners learning grammar.Keywords: Grammar; The Theory of Variation; Interactive; Digital learnerseISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open-access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v4i12.1829
Annie, T. S. Y. (2011). Learning english tenses through the theory of variation. Journal of Asia TEFL, 8(2), 145–167.
Bazzaza, M. W., Alzubaidi, M., Zemerly, M. J., Weruga, L., & Ng, J. (2016). Impact of Smart Immersive Mobile Learning in Language Literacy Education. IEEE, (April), 443–447.
Bikowski, D. (2018). Technology for Teaching Grammar. TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching.
Bowden, J., & Marton, F. (1998). The University of learning. London, Kogan Page.
Chomsky, & Halle. (1991). The Sound Pattern of English (MIT Press).
Embi, M. A., & Amin, M. Z. M. (2010). Strategies for successful English Language Learning (SELL). Karisma Publications Sdn. Bhd. Shah Alam.
Ganapathy, M., Shuib, M., & Azizan, S. N. (2016). Malaysian ESL students’ perceptions on the usability of a mobile application for grammar test: A case study of ESL undergraduates in universiti sains Malaysia. 3L: Language, Linguistics, Literature, 22(1), 127–140.
Harmer, J. (1991). The Practice of English language Teaching (Longman, p. 22).
Klopfer, E., Sheldon, J., & Chen, V.-H. (2011). Ubiquitous games for learning (UbiqGames)Weatherlings, a worked example. Computer Assisted Language Learning. https://doi.org/http://dxdoi.org/10.111/j.1365-2729.2011.00456.x
Krasniuk, I., & Kryvych, M. (2016). Learning foreign languages in context: Pros and cons of using modern computer technologies. IEEE, 6, 838–841. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSET.2016.7452200
Larsen-Freeman. (1991). Research on language teaching methodologies: A review of the past and an agenda for the future. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective, 119–132.
Larsen-Freeman. (2015). Research into practice: Grammar learning and teaching. Language Teaching, 48(02), 263–280. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444814000408
Lindström, C. (2017). Two tenses are better than one. Emerald, 6(2), 124–134. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLLS-10-2016-0034
Lo, M. L. (2012). Variation Theory and the Improvement of Teaching and Learning. Gothenburg Studies in Educational Sciences 323. Goteborgs Universitet. https://doi.org/10.1007/s35834-013-0078-0
Mahalingam, K., & Embi, M. A. (2017). Learning-to-learn grammar module: an evaluation among primary esl learners. Journal of Education and Social Sciences, 6(2), 88–96.
Matsumoto, Y., & Dobs, A. M. (2017). Pedagogical Gestures as Interactional Resources for Teaching and Learning Tense and Aspect in the ESL Grammar Classroom. Language Learning, (March), 7–42. https://doi.org/10.1111/lang.12181
Marton, & Booth. (1997). Learning and awareness. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Marton. (2015). Necessary conditions of learning. Routledge, New York, NY.
Marton, F., & Pang, M. F. (2006). On Some Necessary Conditions of Learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(2), 193–220. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327809jls1502_2
Marton, Runesson, U., & Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). The space of learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Marton, & Morris. (2002). What matters? Discovering critical conditions of classroom learning. Goteborg: Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
Marton, & Tsui, A. B. M. (2004). Classroom discourse and the space of learning. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Marton, & Runesson, U. (2003). The space of learning. In Symposium Improving Learning, Fostering the will to learn, European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction, Padova, Italy.
Ott, G. (2017). Exploring Variation Theory in form-focused language teaching. Teaching the present perfect in upper secondary EFL. CELT Matters, 1, 9–29.
Krasniuk, I., & Kryvych, M. (2016). Learning foreign languages in context: Pros and cons of using modern computer technologies. IEEE, 6, 838–841. https://doi.org/10.1109/TCSET.2016.7452200.
Roy, J. (2014). The perfect approach to adverbs, applying variation theory to competing models. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13398-014-0173-7.2
Rozina, Shima, T. N., Mohamed Ismai, Rahmah, L. Y. &, & Hafiza, A. (2017). Mobile Assisted Language Learning (MALL) In Developing Second Language Learners’ understanding of grammar. Journal of Academia UiTM Negeri Sembilan, 5, 187–208.
Sanchez, J., & Olivares, R. (2011). Problem solving and collaboration using mobile serious games. Computers & Education, 1943–1952.
Shuib, Abdullah, A., Ismail, I., & Siti Nur Afiqah, Z. (2013). The feasibility of teaching English Grammar via sms. Spectrum: Studies in Language, Literature, Translation and Interpretation, 9, 133–144.
Shuib, M., Amelia, A., Azizan, Siti Norbaya, &, & Gunasegaran, T. (2015). Designing an Intelligent Mobile Learning Tool for Grammar Learning ( i-MoL ). IJIM, 9(1), 41–46.
Thorsten, A. (2015). How teachers’ practice knowledge is used and challenged in a learning study using variation theory as a tool. Emerald, 4(3), 274–287.
Tong, S. Y. A. (2012). Applying the theory of variation in teaching reading. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 37(10).
Ur, P. (1996). A Course in Language Teaching, Practice and Theory (Cambridge, p. 77).
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.