Assessing the Thermal Performance of Negeri Sembilan Traditional Malay House Towards Sustainable Practice

t b a


Traditional Malay house has characteristics of passive thermal design which practices climatic design strategies. Currently, Urban Heat Island (UHI) cause energy utilization increasing for cooling purpose in the residential sector. Consequently, modern building construction has a poor passive thermal design. The aim to assess the thermal performance of Negeri Sembilan traditional house towards sustainable practice. The findings show house openings allow cross-ventilation, while house orientation towards climate factors contributes to the comfortable interior. This study highlights ideas and knowledge in improving the construction technology for modern architecture to produce an effective indoor thermal performance in a tropical environment.       


Malay House; Traditional Architecture; Thermal Performance; Tropical; Environment


ASHRAE. (2016). Standard 55-2013 User’s Manual: ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2013, Thermal Environmental Conditions For Human Occupancy. Atlanta, GA: ASHRAE Research.

Cartalis, C., Synodinou, A., Proedrou, M., Tsangrassoulis, A., & Santamouris, M. (2001). Modifications in energy demand in urban areas as a result of climate changes: An assessment for the southeast Mediterranean region. Energy Conversion and Management, 42, 1647-1656. doi:10.1016/S0196-8904(00)00156-4

CCOHS, C. C. f. O. H. S. (2019). Humidex Rating and Work. Retrieved from

CLEAR. (2019). Measuring Conditions in the Room. Retrieved from

Cockrem, T. (2003). Romancing The Traditional Malaysian Home. Retrieved from

Croft, J. (2019). The Beaufort Scale. Retrieved from

Hassan, A. S., & Ramli, M. (2010). Natural Ventilation of Indoor Air Temperature: A Case Study of the Traditional Malay House in Penang. American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 521-528. doi:10.3844/ajeassp.2010.521.528

Hosseini, E., Mursib, G., Nafida, R., & Shahedi, B. (2014). Malay Vernacular Architecture: Mirror Of The Past, Lessons For The Future. Paper presented at the The Proceedings of 8th SEATUC Symposium.

Jamaludin, N., Mohammed, N. I., Khamidi, M. F., & Wahab, S. N. A. (2015). Thermal Comfort of Residential Building in Malaysia at Different Micro-climates. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 613-623. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.063

Kamal, K. S., Wahab, L. A., & Ahmad, A. C. (2004, 10–12 November 2004). Climatic design of the traditional Malay house to meet the requirements of modern living. Paper presented at the The 38th International Conference of Architectural Science Association ANZAScA, Launceston, Tasmania.

Kubota, T., & Toe, D. H. C. (2012). RE-EVALUATING PASSIVE COOLING TECHNIQUES OF TRADITIONAL MALAY HOUSES IN MALAYSIA. Paper presented at the iNTA 2012 (4th International Network for Tropical Architecture, National University of Singapore.

Lundgren, K., & Kjellstrom, T. (2013). Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas. Sustainability, 5(7), 3116-3128. doi:10.3390/su5073116

MetMalaysia, M. M. D. (2019). TINJAUAN CUACA BAGI TEMPOH MEI HINGGA OKTOBER 2019. Retrieved from

Naseer, M. A. (2013). Energy Efficient Building Design: Revisiting Traditional Architecture. Paper presented at the The Asian Conference on Sustainability, Energy and the Environment 2013, Osaka, Japan.

Rahman, A. M. A. (1995). Housing Design in Relation to Environmental Comfort. Building Research & Information, 23(1), 49-54. doi:10.1080/09613219508727423

Ramakreshnan, L., et al. (2018). A critical review of Urban Heat Island phenomenon in the context of Greater Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sustainable Cities and Society, 39, 99-113. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2018.02.005

Sahabuddin, M. F. M. (2012). Chapter 2: Malaysian Vernacular Architecture and Its Relationship to Climate. (Masters of Science (Advanced Sustainable Design)), The University of Edinburgh, The University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from (s1131077)

Sahabuddin, M. F. M., & Gonzalez-Longo, C. (2015). Traditional Values and Their Adaptation in Social Housing Design – Towards a New Typology and Establishment of ‘Airhouse’ Standard in Malaysia. Venice Italy.

Talib, R. B., & Sulieman, M. Z. (2012). Classification of factors contributing to sustainable issues on selected Traditional Malay Houses and Bio-climatic buildings (pp. 1-13): Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Tcollow. (2014). How to Measure Temperature Correctly. Retrieved from

Toe, D. H. C., & Kubota, T. (2013). FIELD MEASUREMENT ON THERMAL COMFORT IN TRADITIONAL MALAY HOUSES AIJ J. Technol. Des, 19(41), 219-224.

Yuan, L. J. (1988). The traditional Malay house The Malay House: Rediscovering Malaysia’s Indigenous Shelter System (pp. 73-97): Institut Masyarakat.

Zin, M. H. M., Ibrahim, N. L. N., & M. F. M. Zain, M. J. (2012). The Social and Environmental Roles of Verandah in Tropical Houses. International Journal of Architectural and Environmental Engineering, 6(8), 2213-2215.



  • There are currently no refbacks.