The Observation of Sensory Design in Open Spaces of University Campus under Hot-humid Climate


  • Mengjia Fan
  • Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin
  • Hazreena Hussein



Sensory stimulation, outdoor experience, open space, university campus


This paper aims to explore the current sensory design of open spaces surrounding educational buildings. Observation of sensory landscape variables is conducted to investigate the potential of supporting outdoor experience. The expected key findings include the functional design and the stimulated multi-senses in the presence of university campuses under a hot-humid climate. In recommendation, the conjunction of behavioural mapping and questionnaire surveys in future studies may lead to more findings of the interaction of users' behaviours and activities, as well as the correlations between sensory stimulation, environmental satisfaction, and outdoor experience.

Keywords: Sensory stimulation; outdoor experience; open space; university campus

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2020. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license ( Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.


Boukhelkhal, I., & Bourbia, P. F. (2016). Thermal Comfort Conditions in Outdoor Urban Spaces: Hot Dry Climate -Ghardaia- Algeria. Procedia Engineering, 169, 207–215.

Creswell, J.W.; Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (5th ed.). California: SAGE Publications.

Ghazali, R., & Abbas, M. Y. (2012). Assessment of Healing Environment in Paediatric Wards. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38(December), 149–159.

Gonzalez, M. T., & Kirkevold, M. (2016). Design Characteristics of Sensory Gardens in Norwegian Nursing Homes: A Cross-Sectional E-Mail Survey. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 30(2), 141–155.

Hussein, H. (2010). Using the sensory garden as a tool to enhance the educational development and social interaction of children with special needs. Support for Learning, 25(1), 25–31.

Hussein, H., Omar, Z., & Ishak, S. A. (2016). Sensory Garden for an Inclusive Society. Asian Journal of Behavioral Studies, 1(4), 33.

Ibrahim, I., Yusoff, W. Z. W., & Bilal, K. (2012). Space Management: A Study on Space Usage Level in Higher Education Institutions. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 47, 1880–1887.

Jamaludin, A. A., Hussein, H., Keumala, N., & Mohd Ariffin, A. R. (2016). Preferences of student residents towards sustainability with the concept of bioclimatic design. Planning Malaysia, (5), 145–156.

Kawulich, B. B. (2005). Participant observation as a data collection method. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 6(2), 1–19.

Malek, N. A., Mohammad, S. Z., & Nashar, A. (2018). Determinant factor for quality green open space assessment in Malaysia. Journal of Design and Built Environment, 18(2), 26–36.

Muslim, M. H. F., Hosaka, T., Numata, S., & Yahya, N. A. (2017). Nature-Related Experiences during Childhood in Urban and Rural Areas : A First Look at Peninsular Malaysians. Urban Studies Research, 2017, 1–9.

Nasir, R. A., Ahmad, S. S., & Ahmed, A. Z. (2012). Psychological Adaptation of Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Shaded Green Spaces in Malaysia. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 68(November), 865–878.

Nasir, R. A., Sh Ahmad, S., & Zain Ahmed, A. (2016). The Relationship of Physical Activity and Human Comfort in Urban Park. Asian Journal of Behavioral Studies, 1(2), 36.

Omar, Z.; Hussein, H. (2017). Therapeutic Sensory Stimulation Garden: An introduction by BAKTI-MIND Project. Badan Amal dan Kebajian Tenaga Isteri-Isteri.

Othman, A. R., & Fadzil, F. (2015). Influence of Outdoor Space to the Elderly Wellbeing in a Typical Care Centre. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 170, 320–329.

Othman, A. R., & Fadzil, F. (2018). Impact of Outdoor Space towards the Elderly Wellbeing at Rumah Ehsan Kuala Kubu Bharu. Asian Journal of Behavioral Studies, 3(12), 91.

Thompson, C. W., Aspinall, P., & Roe, J. (2014). Access to Green Space in Disadvantaged Urban Communities: Evidence of Salutogenic Effects Based on Biomarker and Self-report Measures of Wellbeing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 10–22.

UM in UI Greenmatric World University Rankings. (2019). University of Malaya. Retrieved May 7, 2019, from greenmetric-world-university-rankings

Wang, M., & Li, Y. (2018). The Thinking about Water-Enjoyable-Space Design of Urban Waterfront Landscape. 83(Snce), 212–218.



How to Cite

Fan, M., Jamaludin, A. A., & Hussein, H. (2020). The Observation of Sensory Design in Open Spaces of University Campus under Hot-humid Climate. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 5(13), 117-123.



Educational / Learning Environment