Reflecting Leadership Effectiveness via Food-hygiene Practices
Good leadership may implicate and reflect positive actions and effective hygiene practices. This study aims to encourage and disseminate the importance of the use of technological tools in detecting risks in Food-hygiene Practices in six government-controlled training centers. The survey and scientific swab method elicited data on leadership effectiveness (LE) prevalent in these organizations, focusing mainly on their impact on human health and the environment. The regression analysis shows that LE significantly affects perception and actual Food-hygiene Practices. The large effect sizes of significance difference for both practices were also detected. Accordingly, recommendations and limitations are highlighted in this study.
© 2016. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
Keywords: Food safety; food-hygiene practice; leadership effectiveness; Malaysia
Bolton, D. J., Meally, A., Blair, I. S., McDowell, D. A., & Cowan, C. (2008). Food safety knowledge of head chefs and catering managers in Ireland. Food Control, 19, 291-300.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Combs, B., Pingault, N., & Gibbs, R. (2012). Foodborne disease surveillance and outbreak investigations in Western Australia 2012. Perth, Australia.
Cosby, C. M., Costello, C. A., Morris, W. C., Haughton, B., Devereaux, M. J., Harte, F., & Davidson, P. M. (2008). Microbiological analysis of food contact surfaces in child care centers. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(22), 6918-6922.
Croasmun, J. T., & Ostrom, L. (2011). Using Likert-type scales in the social sciences. Journal of Adult Education, 40(1), 19-22.
de Quadros Rodrigues, R., Loiko, M. R., de Paula, C. M. D., Hessel, C. T., Jacxsens, L., Uyttendaele, M., . . . Tondo, E. C. (2014). Microbiological contamination linked to implementation of good agricultural practices in the production of organic lettuce in Southern Brazil. Food Control, 42, 152-164.
Den Hartog, D., & Koopman, P. (2011). Leadership in Organiations (Vol. 2).
Department of Standards Malaysia, S. f. t. A. o. C. B. (2013). ACB-Good Manufacturing Practice for Food (GMP). In S. Malaysia (Ed.), Standards Malaysia Requirements for the Accreditation of Bodies Operating Certification of Good Manufacturing Practice for Food to MS 1514 (pp. 15).
DuBrin, A. J. (2007). Leadership research: Findings, practice, and skills (5th. ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Fulmer, R. M., Gibbs, P. A., & Goldsmith, M. (2000). Developing leaders: how winning companies keep on winning. Sloan Management Review(Fall), 49-59.
Gatling, A. R., Castelli, P. A., & Cole, M. L. (2013). Authentic leadership: the role of self-awareness in promoting coaching effectiveness. Asia-Pacific Journal of Management, 9(4), 337-347.
Guyard-Nicodeme, M., Tresse, O., Houard, E., Jugiau, F., Courtillon, C., El Manaa, K., . . . Chemaly, M. (2013). Characterization of Campylobacter spp. transferred from naturally contaminated chicken legs to cooked chicken slices via a cutting board. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 164(1), 7-14.
Gwen Burns, E. D., & Martin, B. N. (2010). Examination of the effectiveness of male and female educational leaders who made use of the invitational leadership style of leadership Journal of Invitational Theory and Practice, 16(27).
Hogg, M. A., Martin, R., Epitropaki, O., Mankad, A., Svensson, A., & Weeden, K. (2005). Effective leadership in salient group: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13(7), 991-1004.
Hopkins, M., O'Neil, D. A., & Stoller, J. K. (2015). Distinguishing competencies of effective physicial leaders. Journal of Management Development, 34(5), 566-584.
Kim, S.-Y., Li, T., Heo, J.-Y., Bae, Y.-M., Hwang, I.-K., Lee, S.-Y., & Moon, B. (2012). Efficacies of cleaning methods for decontaminating vibrio parahaemolyticus on the surfaces of cutting boards cross-contaminated from grated fish fillet. Journal of food Safety, 32(4), 459-466.
Kimbrough-Walls, V. J. (2012). Students' Perception of Important Teaching Behaviors in Classroom and Clinical Environments of a Community College Nursing and Dental Hygiene Education Program. (3511838 Ph.D.), University of Nevada, Reno, Ann Arbor. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu.my/docview/1024141591?accountid=42518 ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global database.
Lin, W.-S., Tou, J.-C., & Yeh, M.-Y. (2014). The effective performance measures for store managers on restaurant chain growth. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 14(3), 131-142.
Madera, J. M., Dawson, M., Neal, J. A., & Busch, K. (2013). Breaking a communication barrier: the effect of visual aids in food preparation on job attitudes and performance. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37(2), 262-280.
Mazni, S., Toh, P. S., & Mohamed Azam, M. A. (2013). Hygiene practices of food handlers at Malaysian government institutions training centers. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 85, 118-127.
Mazni, S., Toh, P. S., Mohd Faiz Foong, A., & Norazmir, M. N. (2013). Use of rapid microbial kits for regular monitoring of food-contact surfaces towards hygiene practices. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 105, 273-283.
Norlida, K., Hassan, Z. f., Wahab, R. A., & Hussein, R. M. (2014). Principles of Management. Malaysia: Oxford Fajar.
Obonyo, G. O., Ayieko, M. A., & Kambona, O. O. (2013). An importance-performance analysis of food service attributes in gastro-tourism development in Western Tourist Circuit, Kenya. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 12(4), 188-200.
Pham, M. T., Jones, A. Q., Sargeant, J. M., Marshall, B. J., & Dewey, C. E. (2010). A qualitative exploration of the perceptions and information needs of public health inspectors responsible for food safety. BMC Public Health, 10(345), 1-9.
Reave, L. (2005). Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655-687.
Ryu, K., Lee, H., & Kim, W. G. (2012). The influence of the quality of the physical environment, food, and service on restaurant image, customer perceived value, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(2), 200-223.
Schlegelova, J., Babak, V., Holasova, M., Konstantinova, L., Necidova, L., Sisak, F., . . . Jaglic, Z. (2010). Microbial contamination after sanitation of food contact surfaces in dairy and meat processing plants. Czech J. Food Sci., 28(5), 450-461.
Schumacher, G., Grigsby, B., & Vesey, W. (2015). Determining effective teaching behaviors through the hiring process. International Journal of Educational Management, 29(1), 139-155.
Sharma, S. (2012). Hand Hygiene Practice–Perception and Performance. A Survey among Dental Teaching Faculty from a Metropolitan City-Chennai, India.
Shipper, F., & Davy, J. (2002). A model and investigation of managerial skills, employees' attitudes, and managerial performance. Leadership Quarterly, 13, 95-120.
Stevens, S. C., Hemmings, L., Scott, C., Lawler, A., & White, C. (2014). Clinical leadership style and hand hygiene compliance. Leadership in Health Services, 27(1), 20-30. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/LHS-09-2012-0029
Teng, C.-C., & Chang, J.-H. (2013). Mechanism of customer value in restaurant consumption: Employee hospitality and entertainment cues as boundary conditions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 32(0), 169-178. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2012.05.008
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2013). Your Gateway to Federal Food Safety Information. FoodSafety.gov. Retrieved 28 April, 2013, from www..foodsafety.govpoisoning/effects/index.html
Willis, C., Elviss, N., Aird, H., Fenelon, D., & Mclauchlin, J. (2012). Evaluation of hygiene practices in catering premises at large-scale events in the UK: Identifying risks for the Olympics 2012. Public Health, 126, 646-6546.
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.