Developing PG Students' Learner Autonomy through the PAH-Continuum: A Case Study


  • Gurnam Kaur Sidhu Faculty of Education, Languages and Psychology, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia
  • Sofwah Md Nawi Academy of Language Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Johor, Segamat, Malaysia
  • Kamalanathan Ramakrishnan Faculty of Education, Languages and Psychology, SEGi University, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia.
  • Ruofei Du School of Education, Linyi University, Linyi, China



Learner Autonomy, PAH Continuum, Postgraduate Students


To enhance the current postgraduate educational learning environment, this quasi-experimental case study examined the implementation of the Pedagogy-Andragogy-Heutagogy (PAH) Continuum as an instructional framework for developing basic competencies and learner autonomy among 50 postgraduate students. This is in response to the high attrition rates and students' failure to graduate on time, afflicting the quality of postgraduate education in Malaysia. Data were collected via pre and post-tests, a questionnaire, and focus-group interviews. The findings revealed significant improvement in the students' critical reading and research skills, while their learner autonomy level was moderate due to personal and cultural limitations.


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How to Cite

Sidhu, G. K., Md Nawi, S., Ramakrishnan, K. ., & Du, R. (2022). Developing PG Students’ Learner Autonomy through the PAH-Continuum: A Case Study. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 7(21), 121–127.

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