Expectancy in Urban Farming Engagement
Keywords:Expectancy, Urban Farming, Motivational Factor, Sustainable Practice
Urban farming is seen as a sustainable practice with the social, economic and urban environment benefits. Despite the efforts by the government, there is lack of public participation in urban farming activities and challenges in sustaining urban farming participants’ interest. The study is aimed at measuring urban farming participation motivations using the Expectancy Theory of Motivation which is made up of three aspects; namely expectancy, instrumentality and valence. This paper describes the findings regarding the expectancy aspect of motivation (measured by using Expectancy theory) in urban farming activity in Malaysia.
Abd Rahman, N., Idris, K., Tajuddin, Z., & Abdullah, F. (2013). Transformasi Pertanian Bandar. Serdang, Malaysia: Pusat Transformasi Komuniti Universiti (UCTC UPM).
Abu Dardak, R. (2015). Transformation of Agricultural Sector in Malaysia through Agricultural Policy. Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI).
Ackerman, K. (2012). The Potential for Urban Agriculture in New York City: Growing Capacity, Food Security & Green Infrastructure. Urban Design Lab, Earth Institute Columbia University.
Agustina, I., & Beilin, R. (2012). Community Gardens: Space for Interactions and Adaptations. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36, 439-448.
Ariffin, A. S., Abas, Z., & Baluch, N. (2015). Issues and Challenges of Integrated Agro-Food Supply Chain: An Overview of Malaysian Food Security. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 9(13), 171-174.
Bellows, A. C., Brown, K., & Smit, J. (2005). Health Benefits of Urban Agriculture. Community Food Security Coalition (CFSC), North American Initiative on Urban Agriculture Committee.
Berhanu, M. A., & Akola, J. (2016). Environmental Perspective of Urban Agriculture in Debre Markos Town Amhara Regional State Ethiopia. British Journal of Environmental Sciences, 4(2), 24-36.
Boon Sung, C. T. (2012). Organic Agriculture and Food in Malaysia. Retrieved February 2012. http://www.christopherteh.com/blog/2012/02/organic-agriculture/
Dahlan, A., Ibrahim, S. A. S., & Masuri, M. G. (2016). Role of the Physical Environment and Quality of Life amongst Older People in Institutions: A Mixed Methodology Approach. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 234, 106-113.
Davies, G., Devereaux, M., Lennartsson, M., Schmutz, U., & Williams, S. (2014). The Benefits of Gardening and Food Growing for Health and Wellbeing. Growing Health Report. (pp. 46). London: Garden Organic and Sustain.
De Simone, S. (2015). Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(2), 19-23.
Department of Agriculture (2016). Kuala Lumpur: Department of Agriculture (DOA). Retrieved from www.doa.gov.my.
Engelbrech, W. H. (2011). Critical Success Factors for Managing the Visitor Experience at the Kruger National Park. (Master of Communication Tourism Management), North West University.
George, J.M. and Jones, G.R. (2012) Understanding and Managing Organizational Behaviour (6th edition). Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson Education
Mat, R., & Abdul Majid, A. (2015). Kepentingan Pertanian Bandar dan Cabaran yang Dihadapi oleh Petani Bandar di Malaysia. International Journal of Environment, Society and Space, 3(1), 44-56.
Mougeot, L. J. A. (2000). Urban Agriculture: Definition, Presence, Potentials and Risks, and Policy Challenges. Cities Feeding People. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre (IDRC).
Musthafa, S. N. A. M., Leh, O. L. H., Omar, D., & Karuppannan, S. (2015). Theoretical Review on Environmental Health in Relation to Neighbourhood Planning and Human Physical Activity. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201, 325-332.
Naghibi, M. S., Faizi, M., Khakzand, M., & Fattahi, M. (2015). Achievement to Physical Characteristics of Security in Residential Neighborhoods. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 201, 265-274.
Nasrudin, N., Che Abdullah, I., & Sapeciay, Z. (2010). Evaluating the Suitability of Urban Farming Programme (Case Study: Ipoh). Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam.
Omar, Z. (2016). Kemiskinan Bandar. Institut Penyelidikan Ekonomi Malaysia (MIER). Retrieved from https://www.mier.org.my/newsarticles/archives/pdf/DrZul22_08_2016.pdf
Persoon, L. (2016). Factors Influencing Sustainability Community Based Programs: A Mixed Method Study. (Master Health Education and Promotion), Maastricht University.
Purvis, R. L., Zagenczyk, T. J., & McCray, G. E. (2015). What's in it for me? Using Expectancy Theory and Climate to Explain Stakeholder Participation, Its Direction and Intensity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(1), 3-14.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25(1), 54-67.
Recknagel, C., Patton, B., & Hugunin, P. (2016). Urban Agriculture in Minnesota. A Report to the Minnesota Legislature. United State: Minnesota Department of Agriculture. http://www.mda.state.mn.us/news/~/media/Files/news/govrelations/legrpt-urbanag2016.pdf
Smit, J., Nasr, J., & Ratta, A. (2001). Urban Agriculture - Food, Jobs and Sustainable Cities. (2011 Ed.). Great Falls, Virginia: The Urban Agriculture Network, Inc.
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
How to Cite
eISSN: 2398-4287 © Year. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.