A Conceptual Model of Developing a Measurement Tool for Hospital Food Service Operation in Malaysia


  • Noor Suzana Osman 1. Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 2. International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)
  • Norazmir Md Nor Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)




hospital food service, patients’ satisfaction, measurement tool, performance


This study aims to provide and identify the best tools for measuring the quality of food service in Malaysian hospitals. The discussion focuses on the models used to evaluate the performance of food service operation in hospitals, as well as review critiques, issues, and the latest findings. Many tools have been introduced in the previous studies. However, the decision about the best fit tool to measure the quality of hospital food service is still unclear. Future study should be conducted, and an empirical test that examines various dimensions, such as food and meal service quality, staff/service issues and physical environment must be considered in the evaluation.

Keywords: hospital food service; patients’ satisfaction;  measurement tool; performance

eISSN: 2398-4287 © 2019. The Authors. Published for AMER ABRA cE-Bs by e-International Publishing House, Ltd., UK. This is an open access article under the CC BYNC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/). Peer–review under responsibility of AMER (Association of Malaysian Environment-Behaviour Researchers), ABRA (Association of Behavioural Researchers on Asians) and cE-Bs (Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v4i10.1619

Author Biographies

Noor Suzana Osman, 1. Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) 2. International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)

1. Centre of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences

2. Department of Nutrition Sciences, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences

Norazmir Md Nor, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)

1. Centre of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health Sciences

2. Food Service Quality Research Group, Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management


Abdelhafez, A. M., Al Qurashi, L., Al Ziyadi, R., Kuwair, A., Shobki, M., & Mograbi, H. (2012). Analysis of Factors Affecting the Satisfaction Levels of Patients Toward Food Services at General Hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2(6), 123–130. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ajmms.20120206.03

Al-torky, M. A., Mohamed, E. A., & Yousef, F. M. A. (2016). Inpatients ’ satisfaction with food services in Sohag University Hospital. The Egyptian Journal of Community Medicine, 34(2), 33–45.

Banks, M., Hannan-Jones, M., Ross, L., Buckley, A., Ellick, J., & Young, A. (2017). Measuring the quality of Hospital Food Services: Development and reliability of a Meal Quality Audit Tool. Nutrition and Dietetics, 74(2), 147–157. https://doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12341

Buckinx, F., Reginster, J. Y., Morelle, A., Paquot, N., Labeye, N., Locquet, M., Adam., S., & Bruyère, O. (2017). Influence of Environmental Factors on Food Intake Among Nursing Home Residents: A Survey Combined with a Video Approach. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 12, 1055–1064. https://doi.org/10.2147/CIA.S135937

Capra, S., Wright, O., Sardie, M., Bauer, J., & Askew, D. (2005). The Acute Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire: the Development of a Valid and Reliable Tool To Measure Patient Satisfaction With Acute Care Hospital Foodservices. Foodservice Research International, 16(1–2), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4506.2005.00006.x

Chang, M. L., Suki, N. M., & Tam, Y. L. A. (2014). Student Satisfaction with the Service Quality of Cafeteria: A Structural Approach. International Journal of Business, Economics, and Law, 4(1), 105–111.

Dall’Oglio, I., Nicolò, R., Di Ciommo, V., Bianchi, N., Ciliento, G., Gawronski, O., Pomponi, M., Tiozzo, E., & Raponi, M. (2015). A Systematic Review of Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Studies. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(4), 567–584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2014.11.013

Davis, L. L. (1992). Instrument Review: Getting the Most From a Panel of Experts. Instrument Review: Getting the Most From a Panel of Experts, 194–197.

Doninia, L.M., Castellanetab, E., De Guglielmib, C.S., De Feliceb, M.R., Savinab, C., Colettia, C., Paolinia, M., & Canella, C. (2008). Improvement on the Quality of the Catering Service of a Rehabilitation Hospital. Clinical Nutrition, 27, 105–114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2007.10.004

Fallon, A., Gurr, S., Hannan-jones, M., & Bauer, J. D. (2008). Use of the Acute Care Hospital Foodservice Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire to monitor trends in patient satisfaction with foodservice at an acute care private hospital. Journal Compilation © Dietitians Association of Australia, (65), 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0080.2007.00219.x

Ferguson, M., Capra, S., Bauer, J., & Banks, M. (2001). Development of a patient satisfaction survey with inpatient clinical nutrition services. Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 58(3), 157–163.

Fernando, G. H. S., & Wijesinghe, C. J. (2016). Patient perceptions on hospital food service at Teaching Hospital, Karapitiya. Galle Medical Journal, 20(2), 13. https://doi.org/10.4038/gmj.v20i2.7933

Gregoire, M. B. (1994). Quality of Patient Meal Service in Hospitals: Delivery of Meals by Dietary Employees vs Delivery by Nursing Employees. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 94(10), 1129–1134. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8223(94)91132-0

Hannan-Jones, M., & Capra, S. (2017). Developing a Valid Meal Assessment Tool for Hospital Patients. Appetite, 108, 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.09.025

Hartwell, H. ., Edwards, J. S. ., & Symonds, C. (2006). Foodservice in Hospital: Developement of a Theoretical Model for Patient Experience and Satisfaction Using One Hospital in the UK National Health Service as a Case Study. Journal of Foodservice, 17, 226–238. https://doi.org/10.5406/pluralist.11.2.0064

Hartwell, H., & Edwards, J. S. A. (2001). A Preliminary Assessment of Two Hospital Food Service Systems Using Parameters of Food Safety and Consumer Opinion. The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health, 4(121), 236–242. https://doi.org/10.1177/146642400112100407

Hartwell, H. J., & Edwards, J. S. A. (2003). A comparative analysis of “plated†and “bulk trolley†hospital food service systems. Food Service Technology, 3, 133–142.

Hartwell, H. J., Edwards, J. S. A., & Beavis, J. (2007). Plate Versus Bulk Trolley Food Service in a Hospital: Comparison of Patients’ Satisfaction. Nutrition, 23(3), 211–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2006.12.005

Jacobs, L., & Kok, H. B. (2016). Food Service Concepts: A Comparison of the Effects on Patient Satisfaction of Three Different Food Service Concepts. Wageningen University.

Jamaluddin, R., Manan, N. A. A., Basri, A. M., & Karim, M. S. A. (2010). Patients’ Satisfaction with the Bulk Trolley System in a Government Hospital in Malaysia. Leadership in Health Services, 27(4), 229–315. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHS-02-2014-0010

Jeong, J., & Seo, S. (2014). Importance of Satisfaction with Food for Older Adults??? Quality of Life. British Food Journal, 116(8), 1276–1290. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-01-2013-0019

Jessri, M., Mirmiran, P., Jessri, M., Johns, N., Rashidkhani, B., Amiri, P., Barfmal, M., & Azizi, F. (2011). A Qualitative Difference. Patients’ Views of Hospital Food Service in Iran. Appetite, 57(2), 530–533. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2011.06.012

Kato, E., Takachi, R., Ishihara, J., Ishii, Y., Sasazuki, S., Sawada, N., Iwasaki, M., Shinozawa, Y., Umezawa, J., Yokoyama, Y., Kitamura, K., Nakamura, K., & Tsugane, S. (2017). Online Version of The Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire For the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation (JPHC-NEXT) Protocol: Relative Validity, Usability, and Comparison with a Printed Questionnaire. Journal of Epidemiology, 27(9), 435–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.je.2016.08.021

Kondrup, J., Johansen, N., Plum, L. M., Bak, L., Larsen, H. I., Martinsen, A., Andersen, J.R., Baernthsen, H., Bunch, E., & Lauesen, N. (2002). Incidence of nutritional risk and causes of inadequate nutritional care in hospitals. Clinical Nutrition, 21(6), 461–468. https://doi.org/10.1054/clnu.2002.0585

Labonté, M. È., Cyr, A., Baril-Gravel, L., Royer, M. M., & Lamarche, B. (2012). Validity and Reproducibility of a Web-based, Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(2), 166–173. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.163

Larson, N., & Story, M. (2009). A Review of Environmental Influences on Food Choices. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 38(SUPPL.), 56–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-009-9120-9

Mangunsong, E. R., & Junadi, P. (2017). Patient Satisfaction Contributing Factors on Hospital Food Service: a Systematic Review. In Proceedings of 88th The IRES International Conference, Phuket, Thailand (pp. 52–61). Retrieved from http://www.worldresearchlibrary.org/up_proc/pdf/1175-151541111852-61.pdf

Mentziou, I., Delezos, C., Nestoridou, A., & Boskou, G. (2014). Evaluation of food services by the patients in hospitals of Athens in Greece. Health Science Journal, 8(3), 383–392.

Messina, G., Fenucci, R., Vencia, F., Niccolini, F., Quercioli, C., & Nante, N. (2013). Patients’ Evaluation of Hospital Foodservice Quality in Italy: What Do Patients Really Value? Public Health Nutrition, 16(4), 730–737. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012003333

O’Hara, P. A., Harper, D. W., Kangas, M., Dubeau, J., Borsutzky, C., & Lemire, N. (1997). Taste, Temperature, and Presentation Predict Satisfaction with Foodservices in a Canadian Continuing-care Hospital. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(97)00100-4

Oliver, R. L. (2010). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer (2nd ed.). M.E. Sharpe.

Sahin, B., Demir, C., Celik, Y., & Teke, A. K. (2006). Factors affecting satisfaction level with the food services in a military hospital. Journal of Medical Systems, 30(5), 381–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-006-9022-3

Shahar, S., Chee, K. Y., & Chik, W. C. P. W. (2002). Food intakes and preferences of hospitalised geriatric patients. BMC Geriatrics, 2, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2318-2-3

Singh-Ackbarali, D., & Maharaj, R. (2014). Sensory Evaluation as a Tool in Determining Acceptability of Innovative Products Developed by Undergraduate Students in Food Science and Technology at The University of Trinidad and Tobago. Journal of Curriculum and Teaching, 3(1), 10–27. https://doi.org/10.5430/jct.v3n1p10

Sofaer, S., & Firminger, K. (2005). Patient Perceptions of the Quality of Health Services. Annual Review of Public Health, 26(1), 513–559. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.25.050503.153958

Theurer, V. A. (2011). Improving Patient Satisfaction in a Hospital Foodservice System Using Low-Cost Interventions : Determining Whether a Room Service System is the Next Step.

Tomes, A. E., & Peng Ng, S. C. (1995). Service Quality in Hospital Care: The Development of An In-patient Questionnaire. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 8(3), 25–33. https://doi.org/10.1108/09526869510089255

Ware, J., Synder, M., and Wright, R. (1984). Defining and Measuring Patient with Medical Care Satisfaction. Evaluation and Program Planning, 6, 247–263.

Wilson, A., Evans, S., & Frost, G. (2000). A comparison of the amount of food served and consumed according to meal service system. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 13(4), 271–275. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-277X.2000.00235.x

Wright, O. R. L., Connelly, L. B., & Capra, S. (2006). Consumer Evaluation of Hospital Foodservice Quality: An Empirical Investigation. International Journa of Health Care Quality Assurance, 19(2), 181–194. https://doi.org/10.1108/09526860610651708




How to Cite

Osman, N. S., & Md Nor, N. (2019). A Conceptual Model of Developing a Measurement Tool for Hospital Food Service Operation in Malaysia. Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 4(10), 49–58. https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v4i10.1619

Most read articles by the same author(s)