Teaching Competency in the Digital Era in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines


  • Kim Mee Chong SEGi University Kota Damansara
  • Rashid Ating Universiti Malaya, Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS), Malaysia
  • Lenis Aislinn C. Separa Research Management Office, Polytechnic University of the Philippines Bataan Branch, Philippines & School of Communication, Journalism and Marketing, Massey University Wellington, New Zealand
  • Arif Widyatama Universitas Airlangga, Accounting Department, Economics and Business Faculty, Indonesia
  • Mary Rose Maharlika J. Palmares-Cruz Polytechnic University of the Philippines San Pedro, Philippine
  • Maricar Joy C. Buluran Norzagaray College, Philippines




Teaching Competency, Digital Era, Higher Learning Institutions, PLS-SEM


This study investigated the challenges of teaching in the digital environment and identified digital competency among lecturers in higher learning institutions in the digital era. The survey was carried out from April to September 2022 with 155 valid responses among 200 lecturers, 77.5% response rate from private and public higher learning institutions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. PLS-SEM was used to analyse the survey results and hypothesis testing was conducted through bootstrapping. Among the seven hypotheses proposed, six were accepted and one was rejected, which was the development of digital learning resources towards competency teaching in the digital era.


Anderson, T. (Ed.). (2008). The theory and practice of online learning. Athabasca University Press.

Asian Development Bank. ADB. (2011). Higher Education Across Asia. An Overview of Issues and Strategies. Retrieved from, https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/29407/higher-education-across-asia.pdf

Apostolidou, A. (2022). Digitally situated knowledge: Connectivism, anthropology and epistemological pluralism. International Journal of Educational Research, 115, 102047.

Bishop-Monroe, R., Jordan, M., Ma, Z., & Royalty, K. (2022). Enhancing business professional competencies in a virtual educational environment. The International Journal of Management Education, 20(3), 100700.

Carvalho, A.R. & Santos, C. (2022). 'Developing peer mentors' collaborative and metacognitive skills with a technology-enhanced peer learning program', Computers and Education Open, 3, p. 100070. doi: 10.1016/j.caeo.2021.100070.

Cornelissen, J. (2011). Corporate Communication: A Guide to Theory and Practice, Corporate Communication: A Strategic Cornelissen, J. (2014). Communication: A Guide to Theory & Practice, Sage.

Cortés, J. D., Rivera, L., & Carbonelld, K. B. (2022). Mission statements in universities: Readability and performance. European Research on Management and Business Economics, 28 (2), 100183.

Jones, L., Smith, S. L., & Durham, C. (2022). Teachers as digital composers: Designing digital jumpstarts to scaffold for emerging bilingual learners. Computers & Education, 189, 104592.

Lonergan, R., Cumming, T. M., & O'Neill, S. C. (2022). Exploring the efficacy of problem-based learning in diverse secondary school classrooms: Characteristics and goals of problem-based learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 112, 101945.

Orji, I. J., Ojadi, F., & Okwara, U. K. (2022). Assessing the pre-conditions for the pedagogical use of digital tools in the Nigerian higher education sector. The International Journal of Management Education, 20(2), 100626.

Pringle, J.K., Stimpson, I.G., Jeffery, A.J., Wisniewski, K.D., Grossey, T., Hobson, L., Heaton, V., Zholobenko, V. and Rogers, S.L., 2022. eXtended Reality (XR) virtual practical and educational eGaming to provide effective immersive environments for learning and teaching in forensic science. Science & Justice.

SEAMO, (2011). Teaching Competency Standard in Southeast Asia Countries: Eleven Country Audit, SEAMEO INNOTECH

Shaikh, A. A., Kumar, A., Jani, K., Mitra, S., García-Tadeo, D. A., & Devarajan, A. (2022). The Role of Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence for making a Digital Classroom and its sustainable Impact on Education during Covid-19. Materials Today: Proceedings, 56, 3211-3215.

Sowl, S., Amrein-Beardsley, A., & Collins, C. (2022). Teaching program evaluation: How blending theory and practice enhance student-evaluator competencies in an education policy graduate program. Evaluation and Program Planning, 94, 102139.

Vishnu, S. et al. (2022). 'Digital competence of higher education learners in the context of COVID-19 triggered online learning', Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 6(1),

Wang, H. L., Almeida, S., Frino, B., Wijayawardena, K., Rauf, A., & Hardie, G. (2022). Dialogue matters a lot: Autoethnographic reflections of an Australian teaching team managing first-year undergraduate students. The International Journal of Management Education, 20(3), 100699.

World Economic Forum, (2020). "The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how", retrieved from https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/04/coronavirus-education-global-covid19-online-digital-learning.

Widad, A., & Abdellah, G. (2022). Strategies Used to Teach Soft Skills in Undergraduate Nursing Education: A Scoping Review. Journal of Professional Nursing, 42, 209-218.

Zhang, H., Mervin, R., & Mohammed, B. S. (2021). Core competence-based English major practical teaching system. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101683.




How to Cite

Chong, K. M., Ating, R., Separa, L. A. C., Widyatama, A., Palmares-Cruz, M. R. M. J., & Buluran, M. J. C. (2022). Teaching Competency in the Digital Era in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines . Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 7(22), 23–32. https://doi.org/10.21834/ebpj.v7i22.4155



Educational / Learning Environment

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>