Understanding the Ecotourism Behavioural Intention by Expanding the Theory of Planned Behaviour


  • Jia Gao SEGi University, Graduate School of Business, Kota Damansara, Malaysia
  • Kim Mee Chong SEGi University, Graduate School of Business, Kota Damansara, Malaysia
  • Tze Horng Tan Riam Institute of Technology, School of Business, Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia
  • Peng Cheng Ding SEGi University Kota Damansara, Graduate School of Business, Malaysia
  • Shi Qiang Yu Yunnan Academy Macroeconomic Research, Yunnan, China
  • Yan Zhu Yunnan Technology and Business University, Yunnan, China




Ecotourism, Theory of Planned Behaviour, Perceived Value, Ecotourism Behavioural Intention


This study utilised the Extended Planned Behaviour Theory (TPB) model to study the behavioural intention of ecotourism in China. The study distributed a self-filled questionnaire to 400 tourists who had visited a famous scenic ecotourism spot in China. Use PLS-SEM for structural equation modelling and analysis. The survey results indicate that tourist satisfaction only mediates perceived values, attitudes, and ecotourism behavioural intentions. Subjective norms, perceived value, attitude, and perceived behavioural control all impact tourist satisfaction. This provides theoretical support and management direction for China’s sustainable and healthy ecotourism development.


Abbasi, G., Su-Yee, S., & Goh, Y.-N. (2020). An integrative approach for determining consumers mobile advertising related attitudes and intentions. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3991/ijim.v14i15.14955

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organisational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self‐efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior 1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x

Ashraf, M. S., Hou, F., Kim, W. G., Ahmad, W., & Ashraf, R. U. (2020). Modeling tourists’ visiting intentions toward ecofriendly destinations: Implications for sustainable tourism operators. Business Strategy and the Environment, 29(1), 54–71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.2350

Bamberg, S., Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2003). Choice of travel mode in the theory of planned behavior: The roles of past behavior, habit, and reasoned action. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 25(3), 175–187. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1207/S15324834BASP2503_01

Blackwell, R. D., Miniard, P. W., & Engel, J. F. (2001). Consumer behavior 9th. South-Western Thomas Learning. Mason, OH, 1–13.

Carvache-Franco, M., Carvache-Franco, O., Solis-Radilla, M. M., & Carvache-Franco, W. (2019). The perceived value and profile of protected areas visitors: A case study of the Guayas province, Ecuador. Geographica Pannonica, 23(2), 135–147. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5937/gp23-20582

Chong, K. M., Tan, T. H., Lo, M. C., Mohamad, A. A., & Wang, Y.C. (2018). Communities’ Perceptions towards Ecotourism Competitiveness-Sama Jaya Nature Reserve, Malaysia. The Journal of Social Sciences Research, Special Issue (6), 532-538. DOI: https://doi.org/10.32861/jssr.spi6.532.538

Dichen, G., & Guangrui, Z. (1983). China’s tourism: Policy and practice. Tourism Management, 4(2), 75–84. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-5177(83)90024-9

Füller, J., & Matzler, K. (2008). Customer delight and market segmentation: An application of the three-factor theory of customer satisfaction on life style groups. Tourism Management, 29(1), 116–126. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.03.021

Gallarza, M. G., & Gil Saura, I. (2006). Value dimensions, perceived value, satisfaction and loyalty: An investigation of university students’ travel behaviour. Tourism Management, 27(3), 437–452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.12.002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2004.12.002

Gallarza, M. G., Gil Saura, I., & Arteaga Moreno, F. (2013). The quality‐value‐satisfaction‐loyalty chain: Relationships and impacts. Tourism Review, 68(1), 3–20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/16605371311310048

Han, C. (2015). The relationship between tourism perceived value, satisfaction, and behavioral intention. Human Geography, 30(3), 137-144+150.

Hasan, A. A., Biswas, C., Roy, M., Akter, S., & Kuri, B. C. (2020). The applicability of theory of planned behaviour to predict domestic tourist behavioural intention: The case of Bangladesh. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 31(3), 1019–1026. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30892/gtg.31313-536

Hasan, M. K., Ismail, A. R., & Islam, M. F. (2017). Tourist risk perceptions and revisit intention: A critical review of literature. Cogent Business & Management, 4(1), 1412874. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1412874

Hetzer, N. D. (1965). Environment, tourism, culture. Links, 1(3), 1–3.

Hultman, M., Kazeminia, A., & Ghasemi, V. (2015). Intention to visit and willingness to pay premium for ecotourism: The impact of attitude, materialism, and motivation. Journal of Business Research, 68(9), 1854–1861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.01.013

Kuppelwieser, V. G., Klaus, P., Manthiou, A., & Hollebeek, L. D. (2022). The role of customer experience in the perceived value–word-of-mouth relationship. Journal of Services Marketing, 36(3), 364–378. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/JSM-11-2020-0447

Ladhari, R., Brun, I., & Morales, M. (2008). Determinants of dining satisfaction and post-dining behavioral intentions. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(4), 563–573. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.025 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2007.07.025

Lam, T., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2006). Predicting behavioral intention of choosing a travel destination. Tourism Management, 27(4), 589–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.02.003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.02.003

Lewis, H., Schrier, T., & Xu, S. (2021). Dark tourism: Motivations and visit intentions of tourists. International Hospitality Review, 36(1), 107–123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/IHR-01-2021-0004

Mheidat, M. Z., & Marzuki, A. (2023). A Framework for Understanding Travel Intention Post-Pandemic to International Tourist Destinations. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 71(2), 388–397. DOI: https://doi.org/10.37741/t.71.2.10

Oliver, R. L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17(4), 460–469. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378001700405

Platania, S., Woosnam, K. M., & Ribeiro, M. A. (2021). Factors predicting individuals’ behavioural intentions for choosing cultural tourism: A structural model. Sustainability, 13(18), 10347. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810347

Quynh, N., Hoai, N. T., & Loi, N. V. (2021). The role of emotional experience and destination image on ecotourism satisfaction. Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, 25(2), 312–332. https://doi.org/10.1108/SJME-04-2020-0055 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/SJME-04-2020-0055

Rajaguru, R. (2016). Role of value for money and service quality on behavioural intention: A study of full service and low cost airlines. Journal of Air Transport Management, 53, 114–122. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2016.02.008

Soliman, M. (2021). Extending the theory of planned behavior to predict tourism destination revisit intention. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 22(5), 524–549. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15256480.2019.1692755

Tan, T. H., Chong, K. M., Lo, M. C., Mohamad, A. A., & Wang, Y.C. (2019).Local communities’ perceptions on factors affecting ecotourism sustainability in Batang Lupar’s Maludam National Park. Journal of Advanced Research in Dynamical and Control Systems, 11(5), 633-639.

UNEP, W. (2002). World Ecotourism Summit Final Report. World Tourism Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme

Wang, Y., & Zhang, J. (2017). Application Progress and Enlightenment of Planned Behavior Theory in Domestic Tourism Research. Journal of Shandong Normal University, 1, 9.

Zeithaml, V. A. (1988). Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence. Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2–22. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298805200302 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224298805200302

Zeppel, H. (2006). Indigenous ecotourism: Sustainable development and management (Vol. 3). Cabi. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845931247.0000

Zhang, Y., Yu, X., Cheng, J., Chen, X., & Liu, T. (2017). A Study on the Behavior Intention of Rural Tourists Based on TPB and TSR Models. Geographical Research, 36(9), 1725–1741.




How to Cite

Gao, J., Chong, K. M., Tan, T. H., Ding, P. C., Yu, S. Q., & Zhu, Y. (2023). Understanding the Ecotourism Behavioural Intention by Expanding the Theory of Planned Behaviour . Environment-Behaviour Proceedings Journal, 8(26), 427–434. https://doi.org/10.21834/e-bpj.v8i26.5159



Tourism / Hospitality Environment

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>